According terms of practice, research is conducted

According to
McGonigle & Mastrian (2018), information is composed of data that were
processed using knowledge, and thus, through the application of knowledge, which
creates information, data becomes functional. During my time at JHUSON, I have
been involved in several research projects, each of them aimed at improving patient
outcomes and/or quality of life. In one of these research projects, we are
studying the use of acupressure to alleviate pain. We are still in the data
collection process so we have not progressed into the more complex stages of
the DIKW paradigm. However, as we continue the research project, we will
continue to collect data, which will provide us with information about our participants
and our intervention. Once this information is obtained, we will synthesize it in
order to define and formalize the relations and interactions for our
nonpharmacological intervention in the use pain management. The way we
understand and implement this knowledge speaks to the tenet of wisdom. Knowledge
acquired from our research would provide a nonpharmacological alternative to
pain management, and this could guide and impact the ways practitioners approach,
address, and alleviate pain in their patients. Utilizing wisdom, the
practitioner would evaluate risks/benefits of this intervention and decided
whether or not it is recommended to a patient.

In
the nursing profession, research is conducted for an array of reasons to address
a plethora of topics. In terms of practice, research is conducted to improve
patient safety, outcomes, and quality of life. According to the American Nurses
Association (2010), wisdom is the “appropriate use knowledge to manage and
solve human problems between types of information.” The application of
knowledge, intelligence, creativity, and experiences enables and empowers practitioners
to make clinical decisions. DNPs will have numerous experiences in an array of
settings that will contribute to their attainment and development of wisdom. These
experiences provided knowledge which progressed into wisdom. For instance, a
practitioner may have knowledge of multiple pharmacological options to treat
depression, but wisdom leads to the decision of prescribing a specific
medication to that patient.

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According
to Bernstein (2009), the relationship between data, information, knowledge, and
wisdom is unidirectional, hierarchical, and pyramidal. In this interpretation,
data is at the bottom, and information, knowledge, and wisdom are at the top,
respectively. Without data, information, knowledge, and wisdom cannot be
attained. Bernstein (2009) posits that data has no value until it is processed,
at which time, it becomes information, and when information is given meaning,
it becomes knowledge. When one develops the ability to evaluate long-term
consequences and act appropriately based on these evaluations, wisdom is
achieved. However, my experiences lead me question this approach. A practitioner
has the wisdom to evaluate practices, and if they need improvement, the
practitioner can conduct research on this practice. This would employ, again,
employ DIKW. Is this not a bidirectional relationship? Can one not attain
wisdom and use this acquisition to further research by, again, collecting data,
processing it into information, synthesizing it into knowledge, and acting with
wisdom?