Administration Vietnam and South Korea indicates that

Administration
of medication in the wrong time is frequently made type of medication error.
According to a prospective observational study
conducted in France it is most
frequently perpetrated type of MAE (72.6%) (29).Another
similar study done in Iran and South Korea indicates that nurses administer
medications in a wrong time (24%) and (18.3%), respectively (9, 11). A descriptive quantitative study done
at tertiary care university hospital in Karachi, Pakistan showed that 17% of
medication doses are administered in a wrong time (32). On the other hand a prospective cross sectional study
conducted in Ghana and Egypt indicates that administering medications in a
wrong time was commonly perpetrated type of medication errors (36.7%) and
(16%), respectively (20, 24). In Ethiopia
failure to administer medications at the right time was a commonly made type of
medication error. According to a cross sectional study conducted in Felegehiwot
referral hospital , Jimma University ICU unit, Jimma university pediatrics
ward  and two southern Ethiopia hospitals
wrong time error was 53.6%, 30.3%, 27% & and 58.5%, respectively (10, 12, 25, 26).

1.2.1.     
Wrong route medication administration

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A prospective
cross sectional study conducted in Vietnam and South Korea indicates that medication
errors occurred frequently during intravenous administration of medications,
(67.2%) and (73.2%), respectively (9, 31). Similarly, a cross sectional study conducted in
Ghana and Egypt indicates that the highest error rate was detected during
intravenous administrations of medications 13.8% and 39.58%, respectively (20, 24). On the other hand in Egypt the
administrations of medication through a wrong route were 19.57% (20). In Ethiopia a cross sectional study
conducted in two southern hospitals indicates that administration of a
medication through a wrong route was (40%). From the observed doses 10.1% of
the medications were administered in the wrong route (12).

1.2.2.     
Wrong dose medication administration

According to a
cross sectional study conducted in South Korea, Iran and Vietnam 26.8%, 16.8%,
and 1.8%, of nurses doesn’t give the recommended doses of medication to the
patents, respectively (9, 11, 31). An
administration of medications with a wrong dosage was also common in Egypt
(37.7%). Whereas, in Ghana 1.7% of nurses administered the wrong dose to their
patients (20, 24). In Nigeria, the most frequent type of errors nurses had
experienced in the last ten years was giving drug overdose (30%) and
administering under dose (13.8%) (5).
Similarly, in Jimma University pediatrics ward and ICU ward 27.5% and 3.9% of
nurses administer wrong dose of medication to the patients, respectively (25, 26).

1.2.3.     
Administration of medication to the wrong patient

A prospective observational study
conducted in Turkey and Iran showed that 24.7% and 13.8% of nurses were gave
medication to the wrong patient (11, 30).
On the other hand in Egypt 0.05% of nurses gave medication to the wrong patient
(20).

1.2.4.     
Administrations of the wrong medication

In South Korea
19.9% of nurses gave wrong medication to the patient. Whereas, in Egypt 0.77%
of nurses gave wrong medication to the patients (9,
20).

1.2.5.     
Wrong documentation

According to a
cross sectional study conducted in Egypt, documentation error was the major
type of medication error made by nurses (20).
Similarly, a prospective cross sectional study conducted in FelegeHiwotRefferal
hospital and two southern hospitals of Ethiopia revealed that documentation
error was the most frequently perpetrated type of medication error (10, 12).

1.2.6.     
Other types of medication administration errors

Omission of the medication was common medication
error in studies done in France (14.0%), Vietnam (2.3%) and Ghana (77.6%) (24,29,31).
Similarly,
unauthorized drug errors were common MAE in France (3.7%) and Ghana (1.9%) (24,29).
On the other hand in Turkey approximately three-fourth of the nurses (72%)
administer some medication to the patient without the order of a physician and
(55.3%) of the nurses had administered medication prepared by another nurse (30). Another similar study done in South Korea
indicates that and most of the medication errors occur during the day shift
43.3% (9).A
study done in Vietnam and Ghana indicates that nurses prepare medication
wrongly to the patient (15.7%)
and (0.3%) respectively (24, 31).
According to a cross sectional study conducted in the ICU of Jimma university
school of health science the common types of MAE were omission due to
unavailability of the drug (29.0%) and missed doses (18.3%) (26).