CHAPTER Table 1. Usually, the end stage

CHAPTER
II

Review of
Related Literature

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            This chapter discusses ESRD and
explores the experiences of patients undergoing dialysis. The following
literatures explain and summarize the present findings regarding the several
impacts the disease has to a diagnosed person.

End
Stage Renal Disease (ESRD)

            Kidneys are responsible in filtering
waste and excess water from blood. However, they could malfunction that may
result to CKD. This may then develop into the fifth and final stage or ESRD
over time. This indicates that kidneys no longer operate well (below 10-15% of
normal ability) enough to meet the daily body processes (healthline, 2017).

            In the Philippines, about 7,000 patients die yearly due
to kidney diseases 2. It is consistently among
the top 10 causes of morbidity (7th) and mortality (8th) 13. The disease has been linked to the complications
induced by other illnesses such hypertension (22%) and diabetes (41%) 2,13. In Negros Occidental for instance, it has been
reported that kidney disease due to poor diabetes control and HPN was the sixth leading cause of death in 2016 13.

Chronic kidney disease is progressive.
It is measured through glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (healthline, 2017) as displayed in Table 1.
Usually, the end stage is reached after 10-20 years from the diagnosis. The pace
of advancement is highly dependent on the treatment provided in relation to
diet and dialysis as advised. Dialysis has been used since the 1940s for the
treatment of kidney problems (healthline,2015).
It works through the use of a machine (replacing kidneys) to filter and purify
the blood. It is typically recommended when the level of

 

Stage

GFR (ml/min/1.73 m2)

Health of kidneys

1

?90

normal
kidney function, first signs of kidney disease appear

2

60-89

slightly
reduced kidney function

3A
3B

45-59
30-44

noticeably
reduced kidney function

4

15-29

extremely
reduced kidney function  

5