FRONT manufacturing processes used by the Airbus

FRONT PAGE

INDEX

 

INTRODUCTION

Plenty of manufacturing methods are used to produce these
components but each method has its own limitations irrespective of the fact
that the composite structure is cimple or complex.

 

MANUFACTURING PROCESSES THAT
HAVE BEEN APPLIED PREVIOUSLY

The typical CFRP manufacturing processes used by the Airbus
manufacturer are as follows:

 

1)   
PREPARATION OF MOULD

 

 

2)   
AUTOMATIC TAPE LAYING

3)     the tool or mandrel can be moved or rotated
to provide the head access to different sections of the tool. Tape or fiber is
applied to a tool in courses, which consist of one row of material of any
length at any angle. Multiple courses are usually applied together over an area
or pattern and are defined and controlled by machine-control software that is
programmed with numerical input derived from part design and analysis.

It is often used for
parts with highly complex contours or angles. Although ATL
generally is faster than AFP and can place more material over longer distances,
AFP is better suited to shorter courses and can place material more effectively
over contoured surfaces. These technologies grew out of the machine tool
industry and have seen extensive use in the manufacture of the fuselage,
wingskin panels, wingbox, tail and other structures on the forthcoming Boeing
787 Dreamliner and the Airbus A350 XWB.

 

 

 

4)   
STRINGER INTEGRATION

 

 

5)   
VACUUM BAGGING

6)    This is basically an extension of the wet lay-up
process described above where pressure is applied to the laminate once laid-up
in order to improve its consolidation. This is achieved by sealing a plastic
film over the wet laid-up laminate and onto the tool. The air under the bag is
extracted by a vacuum pump and thus up to one atmosphere of pressure can be
applied to the laminate to consolidate it.

i)
Higher fibre content laminates can usually be achieved than with standard wet
lay-up techniques. 
ii) Lower void contents are achieved than with wet lay-up. 
iii) Better fibre wet-out due to pressure and resin flow throughout structural
fibres, with excess into bagging materials. 
iv) Health and safety: The vacuum bag reduces the amount of volatiles emitted during
cure.

 

 

 

7)   
CURING

 

 

8)   
NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING

 

 

9)   
MILLING

 

 

10) PAINTING

 

 

11)  AUTOCLAVE MOULDING

 

 

12)  PRESSURE BAG MOULDING

 

 

13) Hand
Layup

 

 

 

 

EUROFIGHTER

 

1)   
PREPREGS

 

 

2)   
PULTRUSION

 

 

3)   
ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING

Also
known as 3D printing, this more recent form of composite part production
grew out of efforts to reduce the costs in the design-to-prototype phase of
product development, taking aim particularly at the material-, labor- and and
time-intensive area of toolmaking. Additive manufacturing is a step
change in the development of rapid prototyping concepts that were introduced
more than 20 years ago — a collection of similar, but separately developed
additive fabrication technologies — that is, automated processes that assemble
a three-dimensional (3D) object from a series of nominally two-dimensional
(2D), cross-sectional layers of specialized materials.

All
additive fabrication techniques begin with a CAD drawing. Solid-model CAD data
is converted, using special software, into a file format that represents a 3D
surface as an assembly of planar triangles. Additional, and typically
proprietary, software then is used to “slice” this virtual image into very thin
2D cross-sectional patterns. This layer data is used to instruct additive
fabrication machinery as it builds a 3D physical model by “stacking” the 2D
slices.

 

 

 

4)   
FILAMENT WINDING

 

is a continuous
fabrication method that can be highly automated and repeatable, with relatively
low material costs. A long, cylindrical tool called a mandrel is suspended
horizontally between end supports, while the “head” — the fiber application
instrument — moves back and forth along the length of a rotating mandrel,
placing fiber onto the tool in a predetermined configuration.

Computer-controlled filament-winding machines are available, equipped with from
2 to 12 axes of motion.

 

 

 

A350 & EUROFIGHTER

 

MANUFACTURING PROCESSES THAT
HAVE BEEN APPLIED PREVIOUSLY

 

 

the
most common choice of manufacturing, material and design

A350

 

the
most common choice of manufacturing, material and design

EUROFIGHTER

 

CONCLUSION

 

REFERENCES