Genetic shocking to anyone. There are more

Genetic
makeup various with every animal being tested on, which proposes a problem when
testing the safety of drugs. Many of the animals that are being tested on are
rodents like mice and rats. These animals do not have the same exact genetic
makeup that humans do. They share a little more than 85% of working DNA with
humans, where an animal like a chimpanzee shares almost a 100% (Lee, Lydia
Ramsey and Samantha). Since many of these drugs do not pass human trials and
tests in the first place, it seems quite wasteful and inhumane to test on
animals when the drugs being created for human health may never be safe for
human consumption.  So why are these
animals still being tested on to “help” humans? Due to their differences in
genetic makeup, the best possible medicines cannot pass every safety test that
is required by the government to ensure the safety and health of the people
consuming them.

The
ethics of animal testing is another controversial area that has the country questioning
them, despite the “benefits” of experimentation.  “It is estimated that between 50 and 100
million vertebrae animals worldwide undergo experimentation each year”
(Driscoll and Finley 1). There are also millions of other invertebrates that
are tested on each year. These numbers should be shocking to anyone. There are
more ways animals are being tested on than a person can count. “Should Animals
Be Used for Scientific or Commercial Testing?” describes one example of animal
testing. In one experiment, the animals were subjected to force feeding, force
inhalation, and had to deal with starvation and dehydration over and over again
(ProCon).  A horrific example of animal
testing was when researchers conducted the Draize eye test, which was supposed
to evaluate the irritation caused by various cosmetic products (Driscoll and
Finley). “Animals” describes in detail what was done to a group of animals. It
was insanely unethical and terrible. This experiment involved rabbits being
incapacitated in stocks with their eyelids held open, sometimes for days, so
they cannot blink away products in their eyes (ProCon). This horrendous
experiment is just one more example of the unethical approach researchers use
when testing animals. Many people in the world were appalled at the negatives
of animal testing, and began working together to spark the government’s
attention in order to change animal testing.

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Due
to the help of many, there have been various acts proposed and passed over the
years that have protected many species of animals that are not legally allowed
to be tested on. The Animal Welfare Act of 1966 protects what people consider
as “pets,” that are used in experimenting for human health gain (Driscoll and
Finley). These types of acts should never have been needed to be put in place.
Every living animal has the ability to feel pain and emotion that researchers
put them through when conducting experiments (Driscoll and Finley). Some people
do not realize that 5% of animals in testing are animals like; dogs, cats, and
pigs (Driscoll and Finley). There are also types of fish and birds being used
in experimentation. Even chimpanzees were used many times in experimentation,
due to their similar genetic makeup to humans. These animals were regarded as
spectacular beings that possess intelligence different from many other animals.
The thought of these animals being hurt and tested on made many people’s
emotions turn with sadness and disgust. Monkeys along with other animals being
tested on are not the most abundant creatures in the world. They were on the
endangered animal list for years. The website “Animal Testing in Chimpanzees
Set to Stop with New Endangered Species Designation,” describes how the U.S.
was the only country that still in 2013 was using chimpanzees in animal
research studies. Due to the new endangered species list, these primates will no-longer
be allowed to be used in these experiments (Weiss). Hopefully, other animals
are not becoming endangered from being used in animal studies. It would be
horrendous if a beloved animal of this world became extinct from something as
inhumane as animal testing. The ethics of animal testing portrays an image that
startle many people, which eventually created a following of animal right activists.

The
animal rights movement started many years ago with a man named Jeremy Bentham. He
started what would be commonly referred to as the “Animal Rights Movement” (Driscoll
and Finley). The question of whether animals have the ability to feel pain and
suffer is still asked today and is looked at as one of the most important
things discussed when debating the topic of animal experimentation (Driscoll
and Finley). “In the 1980s and 1990s, PETA brought awareness to many industries
that have been using animal testing” (Driscoll and Finley). Some of these
industries include cosmetics and personal care items (Driscoll and Finley). There
is hope for people involved in the animal rights movement, due to advances in
science during recent years.

            People
in favor of animal testing believe and claim that there are not alternatives
for animal testing. Contrary to this belief, there have been advances in
science where living cells can be observed and tested on in petri dishes
(ProCon). “This is called Microdosing” (ProCon).  “It is a done by administering doses too small
to cause adverse reactions that can be analyzed by human researchers” (ProCon).
An example of this is how some commercial products like EpiDerm and ThinCert,
are made from sheets of human skin cells grown in test tubes. (ProCon) This in vitro
method was developed at Harvard University (ProCon).  People who developed this describe it as
organ-on-chips (ProCon). These chips can replace animal testing in research in
various ways. In vitro testing provides a much safer and effective variation of
animal testing that can still provide the same human health benefits. This way
produces better results than using animal skin as the variable. Another
alternative for animal testing would be small scale human testing. This would
be something simple like a skin cell to test a drug that will decrease skin
dryness, for example. Animal testing can have various negatives, which is why researchers
are constantly trying to find new alternatives. Because of many advances in
things like Microdosing, animal testing is an unnecessary approach at testing
the safeties of various drugs.