Identify Furthermore, Intrinsic Theories propose that an

Identify and review theories and
models from various disciplinary backgrounds that explain or inform
interactions within an organisation

 

Introduction-

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There
are three different types of Motivation Theories that are used to enhance the
productivity levels of the employees. They are: Satisfaction Theories;
Incentive Theories; and Intrinsic Theories. Each type of theory has a different
approach in terms of the way in which they believe is the most effective manner
to get the greatest productivity levels out of the employees within a
workplace. Satisfaction Theories argue that a worker will be at their most
effective rate of productivity only when they are satisfied with their job. Whereas,
Incentive theories contend that employees work most efficiently when they have
a precise reward that they are working towards, and so it is a more
“goal-orientated” theory. Furthermore, Intrinsic Theories propose that an
individual works at an optimum rate when they are given a meaningful job and permitted
to get on with it, and the rewards of this are attained though the enjoyment
and fulfilment of the actual task itself. (Burns, 2017)

Satisfaction theories-

Frederick Herzberg’s Theory of
Motivation: (Two-Factor Theory)

Frederick
Herzberg believed that the motivation of an individual could be narrowed down
into two separate categories. Motivators and Hygiene Factors. Motivators refer
to the things that can enhance the persons job satisfaction and Hygiene Factors
refer to the things that do not necessarily cause satisfaction, but can help to
diminish dissatisfaction. (Study.com, 2017)

Herzberg
argued that an individual has a higher level of needs that would have an impact
on their psychological growth. This refers to things such as in-work achievements;
recognition; responsibility; the work itself; and advancement and growth. Along
with this, everyone has a basic level of needs in an animalistic sense, as to
avoid suffering and deprivation. This refers to the Hygiene Factors such as:
Company policy and administration; supervision; working relationships; status
and security; and the wages.  

Herzberg
himself had done several research investigations into job satisfaction and job
dissatisfaction, which further supported his initial theories. The research for
the theory suggested that job satisfaction was mainly caused by the Motivators
and that the dissatisfaction in the workplace was mainly due to the working
conditions, such as the leadership styles of the managers, the relationships
that the employees had with the managers and the surrounding environment, which
included the overall hygiene levels of the actual workplace, and the health and
safety regulations etc. (“Frederick Herzberg: the hygiene-motivation
theory.” Thinkers, Chartered Management Institute, 1999.)

The
impact that this would have on a business is that it would provide them with a
basis of what the employees will demand as a basic need, and allow them to
consider which types of motivators will be offered to the employees, such as increased
responsibility, recognition and advancement into a higher level of the
business. This motivation theory also impacts the employees as it enables them
to understand what they are entitled to as a bare minimum in the work place,
whether that is a safe working environment, security of their status or the
different types of relationships in the workplace etc. (“Herzberg’s Two-factor Theory.”
The Gale Encyclopedia of Psychology, edited by Jacqueline L. Longe, 3rd ed., vol.
1, Gale, 2016, pp. 521-523.)

By
taking this theory into consideration, a business would be able to better
manage their employees. The reason for this is that it would allow them to gain
a clearer understanding on what is required to diminish the dissatisfaction of
their employees, and which types of motivators. In relation to a Multi-cultural
business environment, although the hygiene factors would be quite similar for
all the employees, there would be some vital differences. For example, in terms
of the working relationships, a Muslim man may be more hesitant to work in a
group with mostly women, compared to a non-religious person. This does not mean
that he wouldn’t be a good team member, but it could still have an influence on
his output.

The
business would also need to take into consideration the different types of
employees and their ethnicities and religious beliefs when thinking about the
various Motivators that would be suited to everyone. The reason for this is
that if the business had a Christian working there, a Motivator that could be
used to increase their productivity would be to offer them an extended holiday
over the Christmas period. However, it may be more suitable for a Muslim
employee to be given the extended break over Ramadan instead to focus on their
religious duties.

Incentive theories-

Douglas
McGregor (1906-1964) was a social psychologist, and he believed that there are
two ultimate styles to managing people. Conferring to McGregor, a manager
either confines to being a Theory X or a Theory Y focused manager. (Burns, 2017)

Theory X

According
to ‘The Economist’, “Theory X is an authoritarian style where
the emphasis is on productivity”. (Theories X and Y, 2017). This
means that the managerial style is considerably on the Autocratic style of
leadership. As stated by the ‘English Oxford Dictionary’, Autocratic can be
defined as “Relating to a ruler who has absolute power”, in which they take “no
account of other people’s wishes or opinions; domineering”. (autocratic |
Definition of autocratic in English by Oxford Dictionaries, 2017)

This heavily has a
correlation with Theory X because it is based solely on productivity,
regardless of other factors. Theory X styled managers believe that “employees
lack ambition, dislike responsibility, dislike work and avoid it where it is
possible” (The
Exam Performance Specialists | tutor2u Business, 2017). This suggests that employees only show up to their
jobs because of the money. (MindToolsVideos, 2017)

The impact that this
would have on a business is that it could have a vastly negative affect on the
businesses productivity. The reason for this is that the employees are
characteristically lazy and unmotivated, which means that they would easily get
distracted and lose focus on the task that has been set, and so they would have
to be monitored constantly. (Expert Program Management, 2017). The affect that this has on the employees is that it
would be quite a hostile environment to work in. The reason for this is that the
managers leadership approach would be quite aggressive and so this could cause
a lot of tension in the workplace.

In terms of Multi-Cultural Business
environments, a business could implement this theory to better manage the
different types of people. This could be done by considering each employee and
figuring out whether a ‘Hard Theory X’ or a ‘Soft Theory X’ approach should be
used. A ‘Hard Theory X’ approach refers to the use of aggression, threats and
intimidation. This type of approach would be suitable for the employees that
are ‘thick skinned’ and do not take things to heart, as it would motivate them
to do the work. Whereas a ‘Soft Theory X’ method centralises more towards
keeping an atmosphere of peace in the workplace. Although this does sound to be
more attractive, managers often find that this does not always work because the
employees do not feel as though they will face negative consequences. (The X&Y
Management Theory, 2017)

 

Theory Y

Douglas
McGregor’s Theory Y is a much more Participative style of leadership and
management. According to ‘The Economist’ this method “assumes that people will exercise self-direction and
self-control in the achievement of organisational objectives to the degree that
they are committed to those objectives” (Theories X and Y, 2017). Theory Y managers believe that their employees enjoy
their work, are enthusiastic, seek responsibility, are good at problem solving,
and set out long-term goals and plan how to accomplish them. (Burns, 2017)

The
impact that this would have on a business is that it would make the workplace
much more relaxed and comfortable as there is no tension due to constant threat
of punishment, as is in Theory X. Because of this, it is much more likely for
the employees to be significantly more productive with their work, and so
increasing the productivity of the business. According to a Journal Article called
‘Douglas McGregor: Theory X and Theory Y’, “Theory
Y assumptions can lead to more cooperative relationships between managers and
workers. A Theory Y management style seeks to establish a working environment
in which the personal needs and objectives of individuals can relate to, and
harmonise with, the objectives of the organisation”. (“Douglas
McGregor: Theory X and Theory Y.” Thinkers, Chartered Management Institute,
1999.). This supports the
context that the Theory Y approach would be more suited to getting the truest
form of high quality productive output from the employees.

A
business manager could implement this theory to get the best out of their
employees in a Multi-Cultural Business environment. The reason for this is that
some of the employees may be suited to lead on certain tasks, whilst others may
be suited to follow. This does not mean that they are not able to collectively
work together, but rather that there would be a greater amount of balance between
the workforce as some would be seeking responsibility, whilst others would be
content with aiding in the contribution towards the overall goal.

Intrinsic theories-

Maslow’s Theory of Motivation-

Abraham
Maslow, 1908-1970, was a psychologist whom argued that each person has five
fundamental levels of needs. They are: Physiological; Safety; Love/ Belonging;
Esteem; and Self-Actualisation. Physiological needs refer to the basics such as
Food, Water and Sleep. Safety discusses the security of the Self-health, the
Family, Property, and Employment. Social/ Belonging needs focus on Friendship,
Family and Sexual Intimacy. Esteem relates to Confidence, Achievements, Respect
of and by others. Self-Actualisation is centred around Morality, Creativity, Spontaneity
etc. These different levels are often looked at as a pyramid, which represents
the hierarchy of the needs. (Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, 2017)

The
influence that this has on employees is that it gives them five separate stages
which differentiates their basic needs to their more goal-oriented needs. Due
to their physiological needs, the employee would want to have a job that
provides them with a decent living wage, so that they are able to survive. Then
two tiers above, the employee would have the requirement to socialise, to stay
sane and happy. This may be done by going out with work colleagues, friends or
family, so to relax. Two ranks higher, the employee would have
Self-Actualisation needs in which they would be ambitious to further enhance
their career and lives. This could be quite a reflective process for some
people in which they look back at how far they have come.

In
relation to a Multi-Cultural Business environment, the manager of the
organisation could implement this theory to better manage the employees. For
example, when the bombing of Manchester Arena occurred in May 2017, it was a
very hostile environment for most Muslim people, because they were being
associated with the minority that carried out the vile attacks. A figure quoted
by ‘The Guardian’ stated “Islamophobic attacks
soared more than 500% in Greater Manchester after the suicide bombing
at an Ariana Grande concert last month, police have said”. (Halliday, 2017)

Due
to this, managers would need to ensure that their Muslim employees are
protected and not targeted and made victims of verbal or physical attacks. Doing
so would optimise the productivity of all the employees and ensure that the
business does not implode, even in such tragic circumstances.

Conclusion-

To
recapitulate, I believe that each type of theory can be implemented to effectively
manage employees in a Multi-Cultural Business environment. Herzberg’s theory of
motivation holds some key principles that would be needed to successfully mould
an efficient working environment, in terms of the hygiene factors and
Motivators. There must be a basic level of security in the workplace, even
though this does not necessarily contribute to the motivation of the employees.
The Motivators would influence the employees and encourage them to work
productively. In addition, I believe that McGregor’s theories also could be
effective. However, I personally feel that a ‘Theory Y’ approach would be more
suited to a modern Multi-Cultural environment because it would allow the
different types of people to collectively work together in an atmosphere where there
is not any hostility. Whereas, a ‘Theory X’ approach may cause quite a lot of
tension between employees and managers, and so negatively impact the business’
productive output. Furthermore, Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs provides some detailed
insight into the different types of needs, which would help a business to
understand an employee clearly. The first two tiers of needs in this structure
could relate to the hygiene factors from Herzberg’s theory because they both
suggest that each human has a basic need of security, whether it’s based on the
base salary or the food and water requirements etc. If I was a manager, I would
use a combination of the stated theories to manage a Multi-Cultural Business
environment because they each have benefits. However, I would not restrict
myself to only one because the type of motivation would depend on the type of
employees that I have.