In our everyday life we encounter man

            In our
everyday life we encounter man chemical reactions. Chemical reactions are when
atoms of one or more substances are rearranged to form different substances.

Some characteristics to identify if a chemical reaction has occurred is color
change, temperature change or even odor. There are six different types of
chemical reactions, which are synthesis, decomposition, single replacement,
double replacement, combustion, and acid base reactions.  Throughout this paper each type of chemical
reaction will be broken down and explained.

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            The first
chemical reaction is synthesis. Synthesis is a, “type of chemical reaction in
which two or more simple substances combine to form a more complex
product”  (Anne Marie Helmenstine, 2017).

The chemical equation for synthesis is A+B=AB, during a synthesis reaction the
reactants, which are shown as A + B, can either be elements are small
compounds. To
identify a synthesis reaction the easiest way would be to count up the amount
of each reactant and count up the amount of the elements in the product, they
should equal the same number. An example of a chemical formula for this
would be 2H2(g) + O2(g), this equation shows there are
two elements coming together which are four hydrogens and two oxygens. Once
these elements are combined it becomes a bigger compound. 2H2(g) + O2(g) would form into the product of 2
H2O(l) which is also known as water (Chemical
Reactions, 2016). A lab that depicts synthesis would be the creation slime. The
reactants in this lab are H2O (water), borax, food coloring and glue. Before they were
combined they were each their own element but once they were mixed together
they formed the product of slime. A real life example of synthesis is rust,
when a iron wrench is left outside the iron reacts to the oxygen in the air and
together they create Iron (III) Oxide which causes rust on the wrench (Shmoop Editorial Team, 2008). 


we have decomposition which, “occurs when one reactant breaks down into two or
more products” (Anne
Marie Helmenstine, 2017). The chemical equation for decomposition is AB= A + B,
it may look familiar because it is the opposite of the synthesis equation. The
reactants in decomposition is one whole compound that breaks down into smaller
compounds are singular elements. To identify a decomposition reaction you
should look for a break up of a compound. An experiment thats shows
decomposition would be NaHCO3
breaking down into Na2CO3 + H2O + CO2. At the start of the lab baking
soda (NaHCO3) was placed in a test tube and
heated it up using a bunsen burner. After awhile the baking soda began to melt
and the results were that it broke down into sodium carbonate, water, and
carbon dioxide. A real life example of decomposition would be making cement. We
start off with Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3) and when heat is added, it begins to
break down into quicklime (CaO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) which makes cement (Decomposition,


Next, we have single replacement
which is, ” chemical reaction where one reactant is exchanged for one ion of a second reactant ” (Anne Marie
Helmenstine, 2017).   A + BC ? B + AC is the chemical equation for
single replacement, as can be seen one element is just replacing another in a
compound. When identifying a single replacement reaction you should look to see
a switch in elements, and it only occurs when one element is more reactive than
another element.  An example of single
replacement would be Cl2 + KBr, once the reaction occurs it is now Br2 + KCl (Single
Displacement, n.d.).  A lab that single
displacement occurs in is the Single Displacement Reactions Lab. To start the
lab we filled the rows of the tray with hydrochloride, zinc, magnesium, iron,
aluminum, and lead. Next, we mixed the elements together individually and
waited for them to react with each other. One of the elements that mixed
together were Zn + HCL, once the reaction occurred the chemical formula changed
to ZnCl2 + H2. A
real life example of  single replacement
is with railroads. When aluminum (2 Al) and iron oxide(Fe2O3)
go through a single displacement reaction they form thermite (Al2O3
(s) + 2Fe). After thermite is heated they use it to join railroad lines
together (Bob Porcja, n.d.).


Another chemical reaction is double
replacement is is somewhat similar to single replacement. A double replacement
reaction is when, “two
reactants exchange ions to form two new compounds” (Anne Marie
Helmenstine, 2017). The
chemical equation for this reaction AB + CD. When a double replacement occurs
the product most of the time is a precipitate. In the Double Displacement
Reaction lab done in class, we filled up 12 test tube with different chemical
compounds and then proceeded to mix two different test tubes together. When
Copper (II) Chloride and Sodium Hydroxide were mixed a double replacement
reaction occurred. The chemical formula went from CuCl2
+ NaOH to Cu(OH)2 + 2NaCl. For the people who bake a real life
example of double replacement is when baking soda (NaHCO3)
reacts with acid substances (HA) in cake batter. The chemical formula goes from
NaHCO3 + HA to NaA + H(HCO3),
this is an example of double replacement because the A element and HCO3
switched places (Double Replacement, n.d.).


Additionally there is combustion,
which is, ” a type of chemical
reaction where a compound
and an oxidant is reacted to produce heat and a new product” (Anne Marie Helmenstine,
2017). Combustion reactions have no set equation but when identifying a
combustion reaction you should look to see that oxygen is a reactant and
another reactant would be hydrocarbon, such as C8H10. Also, these two reactants will
never be the product (Anne
Marie Helmenstine, 2017). In the Black Snake Lab we used baking soda, powdered
sugar, granular sugar, 91% Isopropyl alcohol, and sand, in order to form the
snake. First, we laid the sand out in a circle with a place for the sugar to
sit in the middle. Next, the sugar and baking soda were mixed together and laid
it in the middle of the circle. We then proceeded to dose everything in alcohol
and used fire to light it, forming the black snake. During the experiment one
of the reactions that occurred was C2H5OH + O2 to 2CO2 +3H2O. This is combustion because when
heat was added to the experiment it a reaction between the alcohol and oxygen,
that only left behind water and carbon dioxide from the fire. A real life
example of combustion would be something as simple as a candle burning (Shmoop Editorial
Team, 2008).


Lastly, there is acid- base
reactions but there are two different reacting in this reaction. An acid is a
substance that release H ions in a solution. Acids are typically taste sour
have a pH level less than 7, conduct electricity and are corrosive. A common
acid is hydrochloric (HCl) acid which is also known as stomach acid. Base is a
substance that accepts H+ ions in a solution. Their pH levels are usually
greater than 7, bitter tasting, conduct electricity and are slippery. A common
base is sodium hydroxide (NaOH) which is found in soap and drain cleaner.

Together acid and base are a reaction that, “react to neutralize the acid and base properties, producing a salt” (R.

Naze, n.d.).  An experiment that depicts
acid-base reaction is the mixing of baking soda (NaHCO3)
and vinegar (CH3COOH). The baking soda is the base and the vinegar is the
acid, when placed in a bottle together they release carbon dioxide (CO2). The carbon dioxide then
separates from the water and forms foam and bubbles. One real life example for
acid-base reactions is growing plants. Plants are usually put in acidic soil,
which they can not grow in. So, they put a base of powdered lime and burned
wood ash and it neutralizes the soil (Neutralization In
Everyday Life, 2016).



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