Intro background, culture, religion, government and political

Intro

There are many
differences and similaities between Monaco and Turkey, including their
background, culture, religion, government and political systems, and their
economic situations. This comparison will be covering both Monaco and Turkeys
historical background which includes how the state became said state and gained
its sovereignty and/or independence. It will also include both states political
systems in detail – their model of governance, regime type, parties, and how
their governments work. Both of the state’s religion and culture will be
explained along with a description of their economy. Finally, the comparison
will include current political issues within both states.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

Monaco History

            Monaco
is the second smallest independent state in the world. It is located in Western
Europe, on the Mediterranean Sea along the French Riviera, and bordered by
Italy (Central Intelligence
Agency, n.d.).

The land of Monaco was originally home to the Phoenicians, Greeks,
Carthaginians, and Romans until the reign of the Grimaldi family came into
power in 1297 (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2017). The Grimaldis
declared an alliance with France while under the protection of Spain after 800
years of having their independence, Monaco was annexed to France in 1793 when the
Grimaldis were no longer in power (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2017). Under the terms of
the Franco-Monegasque Treaty of 1861, Monaco traded about half of their
territory, Menton and Roquebrune, to France in exchange for cash and
independence (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2017). Within the same
treaty, in 1918, France stated that in the event that there are no more
Grimaldi heirs, Monaco would become “autonomous state under French protection” (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2017). In 1993, Monaco
became a member of the United Nations.

Turkey History

            Turkey is the only
state in the world that is situated on two continents which are Asia and Turkey
(Yapp & Dewdney, 2017) Turkey is surrounded
by the Black Sea, Bulgaria, Greece, Georgia, Iraq, Syria, Armenia and Iran (Yapp & Dewdney, 2017). Turkey was
originally dominated by Greeks, Persians and Romans (professor). Turkey was the center of the
Ottoman Empire and Muslim world (professor). Turkey was a caliphate, ruled by caliphs, which
became more corrupt, ruthless, and increasingly dictatorial until eventually
many of the Bedouin tribes who resented the caliphate began to rebel (professor). In 1914, the
Ottoman Empire made a fatal mistake which led to the end of their Empire (book). The Ottoman
government had no choice but to ally with Germany and join World War I because
they had no relations with Britain or France. T.E
Lawrence from Britain got Muslim tribes to turn against the Turks and ally with
the British. In 1923, Mustafa Kamal became president and turned Turkey
into a secular state (book).

He stopped the wearing of the turban, abolished the caliphate, sharia law, and
gave women equal rights along with rights to vote (book). Today, the president is trying to create
Turkey into a radical state (professor).

Monaco Culture/Language

Unlike many other countries, Monaco’s ethnic
identity is difficult to determine because many of the inhabitants are not
actually citizens because of the high rate of tourism and/or are not originally
from Monaco (Safari the Globe, 2013). The native
residents are the French who self-identify as the French, Italians who
self-identify as Italians, and the Monegasque who identify first with their
ethnicity and second as Monegasque. The French actually make up the largest proportion
of the population at approximately 35%, native Monegasque make up about 22%,
Italians make up about 18%, and other nationalities make up about 25% (Arnold, n.d.). The official language is French but Monegasque, Italian, and English are also spoken (Safari the Globe, 2013). Due to its variety of
native inhabitants, Monaco has strong influences from France, Italy and Spain (Safari the
Globe, 2013).

Turkish Culture/Language

            Turkey
has a long history of immigration which explains the significant ethnic
diversity. While it is mostly populated with Turks holding 80% of the
population, the Kurds come in next along with Caucasians, Europeans, and Arabs (Aschner, Bane, Kaiser, & Sene, 2009). The Kurds are a
nation of people who have never been politically unified with half of their
population living in Turkey and others located in Syria, Iraq, and Iran (Aschner, Bane, Kaiser, & Sene, 2009). The Kurds are still
seeking sovereignty today. There was also a very high population of Armenians
living there until the Turkish government issued a genocide against the Armenians
in 1915, reducing their population by more than half within two years (Aschner, Bane, Kaiser, & Sene, 2009).

Monaco Religion

            Although
Monaco’s constitution issues the people their right to freedom of religion, the
official religion of Monaco is Roman Catholicism. According to the Worldmark
Encyclopedia of Nations, about 90% of the people there identify as Roman
Catholicism (Encyclopedia, 2007). The second largest religious group are
the Protestants holding about 2% of the population. There is also “an estimated 1,000 Jewish
noncitizen residents and a smaller number of noncitizens who are Muslims or adhere
to other religious beliefs” (United States Department of State, 2012).

Turkey Religion

            Although
it is officially a secular state, Turkey is mostly compromised of one religion:
Muslim, with Christianity and Judaism following as minority religions being
practiced there. However, Islam was heavily enforced by the government in
Turkey. This changed in 1924 when the government attempted to replace their Islamic
ways with Turkish ways i.e. turning it into a secular state (Aschner, Bane, Kaiser, & Sene, 2009). Turkish people were
not content with the change and it was not until the mid-1970’s when Islam was
slowly becoming tolerated again which results in Turkish people to identify
with Islam although Turkey is officially a secular state.

Monaco
Political System

            Monaco has been a constitutional monarchy since 1911.

The prince of Monaco, Prince Rainier III, serves as the chief of state. The
executive branch has a minister of state or head of government. The minister of
the state serves a three-year term and is appointed by the prince. The minister
“is responsible for foreign relations…, directs
the executive services, commands the police, and presides (with voting powers)
over the Council of Government” (U.S. Department of State, 2009). The Council of
Government consists of a four-member cabinet with the minister of state as one
of those members. The other members of the Council are responsible for “financial and economic
affairs, internal affairs, and public works and social affairs, respectively” (U.S. Department of State, 2009). On the other hand,
the National Council (i.e. the legislative body) has 24 members – sharing their
power with the Prince. The prince is able to dissolve the National Council with
new elections held within 3 months (U.S. Department of State, 2009). The role of the
legislative branch is to cast votes on the budget and approve of the laws
proposed by the prince (U.S. Department of State, 2009). Any laws passed by
the National Council (legislative branch) are then approved by the Council of
Government (executive branch), who then submit the proposal to the Prince (U.S. Department of State, 2009). If the Prince does
not reject the proposal within 10 days of having received it, the laws are thrown
out (U.S. Department of State, 2009). The Prince also
delegates judicial actions. The Supreme Court of Monaco has five chief members
and two assistant judges who are nominated by the National Council and elected
by the Prince (U.S. Department of State, 2009). Monaco has
rational-legal legitimacy along with traditional legitimacy. The Prince of
Monaco has a right to rule based on their electoral system. Their election
system is based on a proportional representation or further, an open-list
system. Citizens of Monaco can choose only one ballot with one list of
candidates but they can also modify their ballots by deleting candidates and/or
adding candidates from other lists (http://www.venice.coe.int/webforms/documents/default.aspx?pdffile=CDL-AD(2015)001-e). Surprisingly, Monaco also has the right
to a cumulative vote, in which voters can enter the name of a candidate more
than once ().

Turkey Politic System

Turkey is a parliamentary republic. The executive branch
contains the chief of state, head of government and cabinet. The president is in office for a
five-year term and is elected by the direct popular vote which sometimes can
lead to a second round if there is no established winner. The head of
government is the Council of Ministers, with Binali Yildirim who has held his
position as Prime Minister since May 22, 2016. The prime minister is elected by
the president with the approval of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey. The
prime minister nominates the Council of Ministers and the president elects
them. The legislative branch is held by the Grand National Assembly of Turkey
with 550 members holding four-year terms. Members of the Grand National
Assembly are elected through proportional representation, holding a 10%
threshold to enter parliament (Nardelli, Lyons, Letsch, & Louter, 2015). The Grand National
Assembly is responsible for enacting, amending and repealing laws, pass
legislation over the veto of the president, supervises the Council of
Ministers, approving international treaties, enforcing laws in the constitution
and more (Duties and Powers). The Constitutional Court contains 17 members who
are appointed by the Grand National Assembly and the president (Central Intelligence
Agency, n.d.).

The Court of Cassation contains about 390 judges and is appointed by the
Supreme Council of Judges and Public Prosecutors (SCJP) (Central Intelligence Agency, n.d.). The Council of State
which contains 15 members and the members are appointed by the SCJP and the
president (Central Intelligence Agency, n.d.). There are also
basic courts, military courts, administrative courts and more. The main
political parties are Justice and Development Party, Republican People’s party,
Nationalist Movement party, and Peoples Democratic party (Nardelli, Lyons, Letsch, & Louter, 2015).

Monaco Economic and Natural Resources

            In 1863, Prince Charles
III realized that Monaco did not have many natural resources left when they
gave up Menton and Roquebrune under the Franco-Monegasque Treaty of 1861 (Whitney, 1997). Upon realizing
this, he established the “Societe des Bains de Mer” which today, is mostly
known for Monte Carlo (Whitney, 1997). Monte Carlo is known
for its hotels, theatres, and casinos which is what mainly brings in revenue
into Monaco. The Principality of Monaco is known as a tax-haven because there
are no personal income taxes (Monaco, 2007). Although Monaco
does not have significant natural resources, their living standards are
exquisitely high. The principality depends on tourism, real estate, financial
services (Monaco, 2007). Due to their high
incomes, flourishing economy, and established sovereignty, Monaco may be
described as a strong state.

Turkey
Economic and Natural Resources

            Turkey is a currently a free-market economy
which is also highly involved in trade. With their export partners – Germany,
United Kingdom, Iraq, Italy, United States, and France – Turkey totaled about
$150.1 billion in goods and services (Central
Intelligence Agency, n.d.). With their import
partners – China, Germany, Russia, United States, and Italy – Turkey imported
about $198 billion in goods and services (Central
Intelligence Agency, n.d.). Turkey is still
“highly dependent” on imported oil and gas but they are trying to find ways to
begin using renewable resources, nuclear, and coal (Central
Intelligence Agency, n.d.). Their labor force
is occupied by 30.55 million people working within the state (Central
Intelligence Agency, n.d.). Their labor force
is mostly based on agriculture, industry, and services.

Monaco Current Political Issues

            Monaco’s current
political issues are due to their existing treaty since 1861. Under this
treaty, France must recognize Monaco’s independence and sovereignty and Monaco
can exercise their rights as long as the French government agrees (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2017). French citizens who
moved to Monaco still had to pay French taxes as if they still lived in France (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2017).

Turkey Current Political Parties

The
chief of state is currently President Recep Tayyip Erdo?an based on his rational-legal legitimacy through their
elections. Due to an attempted and failed military coup that occurred in July
2016, a state of emergency was declared. In July of 2017, the government
extended this state of emergency for another three months until their state
reaches “welfare and peace” (Kingsley, 2017). State of
emergencies generally allows for citizens removal of basic rights. This state
of emergency in Turkey allows for president Erdogan to “issue sweeping decrees
without parliamentary oversight or review by the constitutional court” (Kingsley, 2017). According to
Kingsley, a writer from the New York Times, the decrees have allowed Erdogan to
imprison more than 40,000 people including journalists, shut down civil groups
and media outlets and even block access to Wikipedia (Kingsley, 2017). The failed military
coup and declaration/elongated state of emergency all points to a very weak
state.

Conclusion

Monaco
and Turkey are alike in that they are both multi-party systems with prime
ministers involved in their government. In both forms of governments, they have
the three separate branches: executive, legislative and judiciary. Both states
are also members of the United Nations. Although Monaco promotes their
religious freedom and Turkey is declared a secular state, they are both very
religious states with Islam being the leading religion in Turkey and
Catholicism leading in Monaco. There are also multiple languages spoken in both
states, but both have established languages: French being Monaco’s official
language and Turkish being Turkeys’ official language. In contrast, Monaco is
established as the second smallest state in the world, while Turkey is so large
that it resides on two different continents. In regard to their economy, Monaco
is an extremely wealthy state inhabited by extremely wealthy residents while
Turkey has an emerging economy with relatively middle-class residents. Finally,
Monaco has a prince while Turkey has a president.