Introduction because of their low cost and

Introduction

Use of organic soil amendments is a traditional agricultural
practice for improving physical and chemical soil properties, soil structure,
temperature and humidity conditions as well as nutrients content which are
needful for plants growth. Application of organic materials to soil can cause
a change in soil microflora and microfauna including soil nematodes. Nematodes,
are the most ample and varied group of soil fauna. They are ever-present
habitants of all soil types with high population densities. The changes in soil
nematodofauna can results in an increase in the number of beneficial nematodes
such as bacterial or fungal feeders and decrease and/or suppression in the
occurrence of economically important plant parasitic nematodes. Moreover organic
amendments can provide an environmentally friendly alternative to the use of
chemical nematicides, which are often expensive, of limited availability in
many developing countries and
above all environmentally hazardous. Therefore, research on small environmental
impact alternatives to chemicals has received a strong impulse and considered a
wide range of options including agronomical and physical methods (green
manures, crop rotations, soil amendments, the use of resistant cultivars and
arbuscular mycorrhyzal fungi, soil solarization and steam), the use of natural
products from plants and biological control agents(REN?O.M, 2014). Among these alternative control strategies the soil organic
amendments is particularly interesting because of their low cost and the more
general positive agronomical effect on plant growth and on physical, chemical
and biological properties of the soils (Davey, 1996).

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 The control of plant parasitic nematodes is more difficult in
comparison to other pests because they usually live in the soil and attacks the
underground parts (roots) of the plant. A lot of nematode control strategies
such as nematicides, resistant varieties, crop-rotation, non-hosts,
antagonistic crops, biological control (predators and parasites of nematodes)
have been used successfully but each method has some limitation to
implementation (Akhtar, 1997). Probably for those reason, a wide variety of
organic matters (incorporated to soil) have been tested as potential and
alternative control of plant parasitic nematodes. This review emphasize on some
of activities associated with organic amendments and plant parasitic nematodes.

Literature
Review

1.     Direct impact of organic amendments on plant
parasitic nematodes

1.1. Effect of organic amendments on egg
mass production and egg mass index:

Plants grown in soil amended with ground seeds of neem produced
less number of egg masses. The number of galls and egg masses were found less on
the roots of the plants planted in all amended soils than those planted in the
non-amended soils. As galls production with nematodes highly reduced with neem
amendment, provided the evidence that the neem was the best treatment. Neem
extracts can be used for the management of root knot nematodes (Muller and Gooch, 1982).
Nematicidal bioactive compounds in neem are soluble in water, which can be
absorbed by the plants and make the plant tissue toxic for nematodes development
and reproduction (Egunjobi and
Aflomi, 1967; Alam et al., 1978; Khan et al., 1974).
Phenolic compounds are absorbed systemically by the roots of potato plant exposed
to neem formulations which might have induced tolerance against nematodes (Alam et al., 1980). All
soil amendments were effective in reducing the infestation of Meloidogyne
incognita, however neem was the most effective amendment followed by caster
cake and kanair leaves than saw dust in preventing the fecundity of adult
female and consequently the egg mass production. Sugarcane bagasse remained
less effective against Meloidogyne incognita( Hayat, et al; 2012).

1.2. Effect of organic
amendments Ricinus communis and Azadirachta indica on
root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne javanica

  The grounded aerial plant parts of Ricinis
communis were most effective in nematode control. Moreover, no
phytotoxicity was observed in any of the plants treated with Ricinis
communis. Besides the nematode densities, the degree of infestation,
expressed as root gall index was reduced as well. (Zahra, et al, 2006)

1.3. Management of Root
Knot Nematode Meloidogyne Incognita Through Organic Amendment Thrugh Chopped
Leaves Of Different Plant

The experiment carried out under glasshouse conditions to test the
effectiveness
and nematostatic potential of organic soil amendments with chopped leaves of
Indian mallow, Mexican poppy, Ivy gourd, Trailing eclipta, Wild eggplant
and 50 g of Black pig weed applied combined with 10 g seed powder of Black nightshade
per pot on the root-knot development caused by Meloidogyne incognita and
plant growth character of tomato  was noted
 significant improvement in plant growth
parameters in all the treatments but chopped leaves of Argemone mexicana
combined with Black nightshade seed powder elucidate highest improvement in
plant growth parameters and maximum reduction in nematode population and
root-knot indices. Significant reduction was observed in egg masses, eggs and nematode
population of Meloidogyne incognita when tomato was treated with chopped
leaves in combination with seed powder of different plant species. Highest
reduction in egg masses, eggs and nematode population was observed in Mexican
poppy leaves followed by  in Trailing
Eclipta &  in Wild eggplant, in Black
pig weed,  in Indian mallow and in C.
grandis respectively as against in untreated inoculated control. Fresh
chopped leaves in combination with seed powder significantly reduced the root
knot development. The highest reduction in the root-knot development was
detected when tomato plants were treated with leaves of Mexican poppy and root
knot index was recorded as  followed
by  in Trailing eclipta, Wild eggplant,
Black pig weed, Indian mallow and Ivy gourd respectively. In untreated inoculated
pots the root-knot development was highest. Results presented in the
study clearly indicated that all the treatment were found to be potent for the
tomato plants as they promoted of growth by enhancing the shoot and root growth
of the plants thereby results in decreasing the nematode infestation. (Mohd  & Amir , 2017)

1.4. Effect of Organic Amendments on Plant Growth and Gall
Development in Eggplants Inoculated With Root Knot Nematode (Meloidogyne
Incognita)

 The
shoot and root length and shoot weight off the eggplant were significantly increased;
and  nematode population and development
of galls was decreased as the amendment dose was increased as compared to non-amended
soil(Bhesham, et, al, 2011).  El-Zawahry (2000) reported that organic manure
treatments with farmyard, goat, rabbits, poultry and pigeon showed increased plant
growth and reduced nematode population. Ibrahim (2000) observed that the soil amended with
manures greatly suppressed the disease index (root galling). Umar and Jada (2000) also
used goat manure, that inhibited the growth and development of Meloidogyne
incognita in pot tests and the mixtures of the amendments also supplied
nutrients to the soil which enhanced plant growth. Hundekar and Bhat (2001) reported that poultry
manure was better than carbofuran in controlling root knot with the highest
economic benefit. Hever, Shafique
et al., (2001) reported that organic amendments of soil with neem
cake, mustard cake, farmyard manure and poultry manure significantly reduced
the incidence of M. javanica and increased plant height and fresh weight
of shoot compared to control, became treatments significantly reduced the
number of galls per plant. Siddiqui
et al., (2001), Verma and Jain (2001) also reported that organic manuring
resulted in less galling. Bulluck
et al., (2002) reported that soil amendments had a large impact
on nematode community structure and diversity. Costa et al., (2002)
observed reduced egg production when poultry manure extracts applied to M.
incognita-inoculated tomato plants, and decreased fresh shoot weights when
applied at high rates. Farmyard and poultry manures improved plant growth
(measured in terms of shoot height, number of branches, leaves, and nodules)
and reduced nematode gall formation(Bhesham, et, al, 2011).

1.5. Influence of cover crops and soil amendments on soil nematodes

(Wang et al., 2007) reported that, significantly less root galling of okra was found
with treatments of sunn hemp rather than sorghum sudangrass, which indicates
that sunn hemp, possesses one or more mechanisms to resist root-knot nematodes.
The most important finding is that this function can last long enough to
protect the subsequent nematode susceptible cash crop. Effects of cover crops
and organic amendments on population densities of different soil nematode taxa the
total number of nematodes decreased after sorghum sudan grass was grown, and
the total numbers of both plant parasitic and non-parasitic nematodes were suppressed.
Although sorghum sudangrass did not cause a decline in the density of M.
incognita, it did not allow a substantial buildup of this or any other taxon of
plant parasitic nematode. In contrast, the sunn hemp treatment reduced the
aggregate total number of nematodes slightly, but strongly suppressed the
parasitic nematode taxa, and allowed the mycophagous Aphelenchus avenae and the
bactivorous rhabditids to thrive. The taxa of plant-parasitic nematodes that
were present before sun hemp was grown, but that could not be detected after
sun hemp had been grown, were the root-knot nematode (M. incognita), the stunt
nematode (Quinisulcius acutus) and the reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus
reniformis.

1.6.Influence of Organic Amendments or Manur Application on Population
and Reproduction of Root Knot Nematode, Meloidogyne Incognita

The nematode population (larvae, females and males per root system)
was significantly decreased as dose of soil amendment with manures of animal
(poultry, Buffalo,goat, sheep and cow)  was increased. The minimum nematodes
population per plant was recorded when soil was amended with poultry manure,
followed by goat manure, as compared to cow manure, mixture of these all manures,
sheep manure, and buffalo manure. The maximum nematode populations were
recorded in case of inoculated non-amended. The nematodes reproduction factor
per root system was significantly decreased as dose of soil amendment was increased.
The minimum nematode reproduction factor per plant was recorded when soil was amended
with poultry manure, followed by goat manures, as compared to cow manure,
mixture of manures , sheep manure, and buffalo manure . But, the maximum nematodes
reproduction factor was recorded  in case
of control (inoculated un-amended) while no nematodes reproduction factor was
found in control (un-inoculated un-amended). The reduction was related with the
rate of amendments (Khaskheli, 2011).

2.     
Improving
Nematode Destroying-Fungi By Organic Amendements

2.1. Stimulaton Of Nematode Destroying-Fungi By Organic
Amendements Applied In Palnt Management Of Plant Parasitic Nematode.

Application of organic amendments has
significant effect both in the control of root knot nematode and thriving
nematode destroying fungus. Chicken manure shows 92% reduction of plant
parasitic nematodes, 73% & 55% reduction of those nematodes were also
possible with the application of chicken manure and cow manure in a combination
and cow manure alone respectively. The population of predacious nematodes
increase with response to organic amendment; and the highest number of predacious
nematode was recorded on chicken manure application. Arthrobotrys,
oligospora fungi (natural enemies of plant parasitic nematodes) was
enhanced with organic amendment specially by chicken manure application(Wachira, et al, 2009).

3. Parasitism of
Nematodes by the Fungus Hirsutella Rhosiliensis as Affeceted by Certain Organic
Amendments.

Organic amendment always suppressed
nematodes parasitism. The mechanism of suppression is complicated to interpret;
it may be due ammonia or nematicidal behavior of the amendment, it may also due
to the change in soil porosity and soil water thus affect several aspects of
the biology of nematodes. But low quantities of organic matter amendment appear
to stimulate nematodes parasitism(Jaffee, et al, 1994).

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.     
Creating Unsuitable Environment For Plant Parasitic Nematodes By
Organic Amendment: Disturbing The Soil Physical And Chemical Property

The control of plant
parasitic nematodes is more difficult in comparison to other pests because they
usually live in the soil and attacks the underground parts (roots) of the plant.
A lot of nematode control strategies such as nematicides, resistant varieties,
crop-rotation, non-hosts, antagonistic crops, biological control (predators and
parasites of nematodes) have been used successfully but each method has some
limitation to implementation (Akhtar, 1997).
Probably for those reason, a wide variety of organic matters (incorporated to
soil) have been tested as potential and alternative control of plant parasitic
nematodes. The most studies worldwide are focused on root-knot nematodes of the
genus Meloidogyne because of approximately 2000 plants are known to be hosts of
these nematodes from grass to trees where they cause the galls on roots. They
are occurring mainly in temperate areas with
short winters, especially in sandy soils. Because of crop rotation as a control
tactic of these nematodes is rather difficult due to a wide range of their hosts,
the alternative organic control is main investigated method for their
regulation (Table 2). Sasser and Carter (1985) noted that Meloidogyne nematodes account for
approximately 5 % of global yield loss. The genus Meloidogyne includes more than 60
species, however four Meloidogyne species (M. javanica, M.
arenaria, M. incognita, M. hapla) are
considered as major plant pests´ worldwide (Eisenback & Triantaphyllou,
1991). D’Addabbo (1995) found 160 literature sources on the effect of organic
amendments on nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne
under different host plants. For example, on tomato roots, the
reduction of M. incognita population by the application of chicken manure was observed by D’Addabbo
et al. (2000); by the application
of water hyacinth compost, mustard straw, rice husk and asparagus compost
(Sharma et al., 1997); by olive pomace (D’Addabbo & Sasanelli, 1996a;
D’Addabbo et al., 2011); by grape pomace (D’Addabbo & Sasanelli, 1998) or pepper
crop residues (Buena et al., 2007). On the other hand, not all types of organic amendments were
beneficial in the suppression of
root-knot nematodes. For instance, Bulluck et al., (2002a) observed that Meloidogyne incognita populations
were not affected by amendments with swine manure or composts
water extract prepared from bean or wheat straw, poultry or fish wastes
(Korayem, 2003). Vermicompost showed no inhibitory effect on the number of M. hapla galls on cabbage
and tomato roots; incorporation of compost consisted of cull waste potatoes,
sawdust and beef manure had no efficacy on M. hapla populations in
potatoes (Kimpinski et al., 2003).
No suppressive effect of organic amendment was observed on the population of
rice root-knot nematode M. graminicola
(Gergon et al., 2001). Another most important worldwide are cyst nematodes. Therefore,
their control is difficult because they are more resistant than endoparasitic,
ectoparasitic and sedentary ectoparasitic nematodes, because of the presence of
the layer of dead cuticle of females which serves to protect the eggs and
second-stage juveniles that are retained within (Zunke & Eisenback, 1998).
In every case, several studies
were focused on this group of plant parasitic nematodes with positive results
(Table 2). For instance, Van der Laan (1956) found that development of Globodera rostochiensis on potato roots was delayed by application of organic material in
comparison to untreated control. Similarly to it, Ren?o et al. (2007, 2011) observed
reduced reproduction of females of G.
rostochiensis patotype Ro1 and G. pallida patotypes Pa2 and Pa3 by use of nine type composts applied at four
doses, when compared to the untreated control. Also, steer and chicken manures
reduced the numbers of cyst G. pallida and resulted in increased yields of potatoes (Gonzalez &
Canto-Sanenz, 1993). Contrary, vermicompost don’t reduce Heterodera schachtii in study
of Szczech et al. (1993). Kimpinsiki et
al. (2003) observed an
increase in the number of Heterodera
trifolii juvenile in barley plots however this
species parasitized on red clover crop. Similar increase in egg hatching of the
species was observed by Kunelius et
al. (1988). The authors attributed this support of hatching to
increased aeration in conventionally tilled soil compared to non-tilled soil. Several
studies were aimed at the control (reduction) of several other endo and
ectoparasitic nematode species. The
nematode suppression after and organic amendments was recorded, for example at Pratylenchus species (Khan et al., 1986; LaMondia et al., 1999; Abawi & Widmer, 2000;
Kimpinski et al., 2003); Helicotylenchus species (Subba Rao et
al., 1996; Khan & Shaukat, 1998) and
many other (see Table 2). Contrary to that, no suppression of Pratylenchus sp. after the application
of swine manure was observed by Bulluck et
al. (2002a); sewage sludge (Weiss & Larink, 1991); yard-waste
compost on vegetable crops (McSorley & Gallaher, 1995). Also, Xiphinema spp., Criconemella spp. and Paratrichodorus minor was
unaffected by application of yard-waste compost on vegetable crops (McSorley
& Gallaher, 1995). Soil treatments by solid waste compost did not affect
the population densities of Criconemoides spp. and Paratrichodurus
minor as well, however the population
densities M. incognita increased in compost-amended plots (McSorley et al., 1997). Sewage sludge
treatment produced no suppressive effect on Helicotylenchus dihystera (Sharma et al., 2000).