INTRODUCTION In today’s international community of polities

INTRODUCTION

 

In today’s international community of polities the Federalism is an
important and broadly implemented feature. Around 70% of the world states are
believed to have at least some element of federalism, around 20% of the nations
are considered to be federal states, and 40% of the world’s population lives in
these countries. The combination between self-rule and shared rule is of
greatest importance in a federal state, regions or provinces should have. The
federalism involves the linkage of individuals, groups and polities in a
limited union that provinces for active pursuit for common end and at the same
time maintains the integrities of all parties.

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The republic of the Philippines is currently under a unitary form of
government which is extremely centralized. In this form of government, the
president is both the head of the state and head of the government. This means
that he has a general supervision over local governments which are dependent on
the national as the constitution has concentrated political powers and
authority in national government. Our autonomous regions, provinces,
municipalities and barangays can only exercise powers and enact policies that
the central government chooses to delegate to them. Recently, some politician,
scholars and experts are looking into the federal option of the next step for
Philippine governance. Not only Philippines but also other countries are
interested on adopting the federal system. After devolution, some argued that
federalism is the next logical step in the Philippines. Under a federalist form
of government, the power will be divided between the National Federal
Government and Local State Government. In the proposed federal structure of
Senator Aquilino “Nene” Pimentel Jr., a major proponent of the move to adopt a
federal system of government, that the Philippines would be divided into
different state. Each state will be able to keep 80% of their income and funds
to themselves, and only 20% of that would go to the Federal National
Government. And out from 80% of each state, 30% of that would go to the Local
State Government and 70% would go to the Provinces, Cities, Municipalities and
Barangays. Each state would also have their own set of senators and
representatives. Legislative powers are also shared between the National
Federal Government and Local State Government. So in basic terms the Federal
Government is responsible for the military and protection for the nation and
the local state government would be responsible for their respective states,
which each local government has more controls over the projects, budgets and
laws. The Philippine has 7,107 islands each with diverse tribes and cultures
and obviously each region has their own specific needs. By shifting from a
unitary to a federal type of government we can achieved economic reforms, equal
justice, and progress to each state and decongest metro Manila as some would
have put it. Right now most of the developments are in metro Manila, with
federalism this would be shared across the nation. Advocates of federalism
believe that the structure of federal system would respond to the general
obstacle and differences cause by cultural diversity on governance because it
allows fragmentation and at the same time promoting national interest.

 

Background
of the study

The idea of federalism is attractive for most
Filipinos with regards to the proposal of federal system in the Philippines. It
became hot topic among Filipinos because it is expected to accommodate regional
preferences and diversity – a matter of great importance in a country with
7,107 islands and more than 40 different ethnic groups.

 Federalism is not only an institutional
arrangement within a nation, but also a political philosophy in which a group
of members are considered bound together, with a governing representative head.
The word federalism comes from the Latin word, foedus, which can be interpreted as a union or alliance where equal
parts agrees to create a common union with its own identity and integrity but
at the same time the different parts will keep its own identity and integrity. Federal government is a system of
dividing up power between a central national government and local state
governments that are connected to one another by the national government.

We directly have a unitary form of
government. Thomas Hobbes said that democracy is based on the situation wherein
people gather together to establish or manage a government. Observing the
Philippines, one would notice how unequal the regions are. It is noticeable
that Metro Manila and its immediate adjoining cities enjoy greater
opportunities of development.

            The
researchers observe that the power is centralized in the Metro Manila. We
conduct this study about federalism to determine the respondent’s perception
and awareness about the proposal of our government to federal system and to
empower the provinces and other local governments to have an equitable sharing
of the resources expected to achieve a more balanced development in our
country.

This situation pushes the researchers to make
this study. We conducted this study to know how federal government will promote
the development of our country, strengthening the rule of law, empowering the
people and improving our governance to empower the provinces and other local
governments to have an equitable sharing of the resources expected to achieve a
more balanced development in our country. In order for the federal model to work,
democracy is a critical matter. Since a federation not only is demanding
regional self rule, but also representation in the national government there
are many different levels that can ensure democracy and peoples individual
rights. Federalism can be seen as a way to create a union or to make sure that
a union stays together; it can integrate new polities while preserving internal
diversities.

Statement
of the Problem

         This study aimed to know the
perspective of barangay officials and residents in Mauban, Quezon about on the
proposed federal system of government in the Philippines                              Specifically,
it seeks to achieve the following objectives:

To
determine the distribution of respondents in Mauban, Quezon in terms of
the following:

1.1 
Barangay Officials

1.2 
 Residents

2.      To
determine the understanding of  features
on  the proposed federal system of the
government in the Philippines to the respondents in terms of the following:

2.1   Division of Powers

2.1.1       
Federal Government

2.1.2       
Regional Government

2.2   Structure of Government

2.3   Judicial System

2.4   Legislative system

3.     
Is there a significant difference in the
perceptions of the two types of respondents on the proposed federal system of
government in the Philippines?

 

Significance
of the Study

 

The findings of this
study are significant to the following regarding the understanding of features on
the Proposed Federal System of Government in the Philippines of selected
Barangay in Mauban, Quezon.

For the Local Government Unit (LGU) of Mauban,
Quezon they will perform the function of federal system as well as the rules
and regulations and obligations for the public generally.

For the residents and barangay officials, can
help evaluating the proposed federal system of government. In addition, the
respondents can relate their opinions towards the improvement of our government
system from democratic to federal

This study is
significant to the student of Public
Administration, the result of this study will serve as a guide data or
information to those involve in the propose federal of government.

Lastly, for the future researchers whose study is line
with this research, they will be able to use this as a reference or to guide
and will also provide them the essential information necessary for the success
for their own study.

 

Scope
and Limitation

This study aimed to determine the
perception of residents and barangay officials regarding on the proposed
federal system of government in terms of (a) Federal Government (b) Regional
Government (c) Structure of Government (d) Judicial System (e) Legislative
System. The total population samplings are the selected barangay of Mauban,
Quezon.

This study was limited to those
residents and barangay officials of Mauban, Quezon who attended in the seminar.
Simple random sampling method was used by the researchers to select which
barangay will attend. The total number of respondents who attended in the
seminar will only be the respondent of the study. The researcher used a
checklist type of questionnaire which served as the main instrument of the
study. It was composed of 20 item questions and was coded as follows: (SA)
strongly agree, (A) agree,(U) uncertain (D) disagree and (SDA) strongly
disagree.