Investigation smelling and weird colored water. A

Investigation Report and ProposalBackground In the spring of 2014, large amounts of lead found their way into the water that some residents of Flint, Mich., were using to drink, cook, and brush their teeth. In early 2013, in order to save money, Flint officials decided to change the source of the city’s water from the Detroit Water and Sewerage Department to the Karegnondi Water Authority (KWA) but because the KWA was not ready to deliver the water Flint officials had to find a temporary solution. In April 2014, Flint, Michigan switched to a new source for water which caused problems right away. In a matter of weeks, citizens of Flint were complaining about the bad smelling and weird colored water. A few months later after switching to the new water source, Flint told them that their water had a lot of organic molecules called trihalomethanes. Trihalomethanes are a group of chemicals associated with the contamination of water, lead is another group in it. There were high levels of lead found in their water system. One sample of water taken from a house in Flin found a lead level of 13,000 parts per billion (ppb) was found.Any level of lead in a water supply is not safe, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has a maximum level of lead contamination in water from homes at 15 ppb which is called the “action level.” Lead is known to damage children’s brains from developing. During the Anchoring Phenomenon 2 grams of Aluminum foil was added to a blue solution, Copper Chloride. What occurred as a  result of this was a chemical reaction where the aluminum started to heat up deteriorate and shed into the solution thus causing a color change in the solution as well. This Anchoring Phenomenon is being investigated in order to give insight to how to fix the problem in Flint, Michigan’s water supply. The problem that is being solved is how to filter out the chemicals in Flint’s water supply. Results of Investigation A chemical reaction did occur in the solution. This happened because the color changes, the temperature changes, and a gas formed of the solution. Color change indicates a chemical reaction because it shows how the composition of the molecules change during the experiment. The original color of the solution was blue, but then changed to a dark purple after adding the foil. The color changing is a sign of a chemical reaction happening. Another color change happened to the foil when it was added into the solution. The original color of the foil was a metallic color, but was then changed to a dark orange color. Another way chemical reaction happened was when the temperature changed. The temperature of the solution in the beginning was around 21 degrees celsius. After finishing the anchoring phenomenon, the temperature of the solution increased to about 51 degrees celsius. This showed how a chemical reaction occurred through the temperature change of the solution. Furthermore, because energy is required to break bonds, this also shows how a chemical reaction occurred because it shows how while the different bonds were being formed it resulted in energy being released when the new bonds were formed. Finally, the formation of a gas is another way that a chemical reaction is indicated. When the foil was inside the blue solution the temperature change gave the molecules enough energy to the point where they started to change states from a liquid to a gas. Gas production is an indicator of a chemical reaction because it is another way that shows how the composition of a substance has changed. The identity of the foil was Aluminum. This was determined using the density, texture, color, and malleability of the foil. The density of the foil was 0.5 g/cm^3 which is far from the density of Aluminum, 1.7 g/cm^3,  but using other characteristics of the foil lead to the conclusion that the foil was made out of Aluminum. Furthermore, the that was using to determine the density of the foil was a test called the Water Displacement test. Scientists can use density with combinations of other qualities to find out what the solid is. To identify a solid, they use the equation to find out the density of the solid which is d = m/v. D is density, m is mass, and v is volume. You can get the mass easily by weighing the solid on a scale. To get the volume, you can use the water displacement test. Additionally the texture, color, and malleability of the foil was used. The foil was a smooth, shiny, flimsy silver material. These characteristics match up with the characteristics of aluminum which is why aluminum is stated to be the identity of the foil. The cation in the blue solution was Copper. One way we can identify the cation in a solution is through the flame test. A lot of different metals produce different colored flames when burned, so this is helpful in identifying the identity of a cation in solution. electrons are usually in the lowest energy configuration. It takes a lot of energy to make an electron jump up to higher shells. What is happening in the flame test is the fire, burning at 1000 ?, provides enough energy for the electrons to absorb, that they move up in energy shells. Electrons will always try to make their way back to the stable conformation. This means that once the energy input is gone, the electron drops back to the lower energy levels. This drop, from outer shells back down to inner shells, releases the energy that the electron absorbed. This energy is the light that we see in the flame test. Because different metals have different electron configurations, the way the electrons drop changes the color of the flame. This allows us to identify the cation in a solution. When burned the blue solution created a green blue flame. Furthermore, using the chart the shows which color corresponds to which cation, the color shown with copper was the closest color that matched what color was seen while the blue solution was being burned. The anion in the blue solution was Chlorine. Two compounds that are often used to identify the anions in solution are silver nitrate and barium chloride. Barium and silver will bond with some specific anions and precipitate out of solution. The precipitates form because the new compounds they make are insoluble. One thing of note is that the only conclusions that can be made are about the anions being tested. Using the silver nitrate test will only yield conclusions about chlorine, bromine, and iodine. Conversely, the barium chloride test will only yield conclusions about the presence of sulfate ions. When silver nitrate was added to the blue solution, copper chloride, a white precipitate formed which means that the anion present in the blue solution is Chlorine according to the chart that was provided to during the experiment. On the other hand, when barium chloride was added to the blue solution nothing happened which means that nothing can be concluded using that test. Nothing happened during the barium chloride test because what happens when a precipitate forms is either a single or double replacement reaction and since the anion present in the blue solution there was no need for barium chloride switch/replace any of the molecules since they would essentially be ending up with the same chemicals. The overall reaction that occurred during this experiment was a single replacement reaction. In a single replacement reaction one element takes over another element in an ionic bond. A nonmetal always takes the place of a nonmetal while a metal always takes the place of a metal. However, if the metal/nonmetal that is trying to take the place of the metal/nonmetal in the ionic bond is less reactive than the metal/nonmetal inside the ionic bond, no reaction will occur. When aluminum was put into copper chloride it caused aluminum to react with chlorine and replace copper in the ionic bond. Furthermore, this only happened because aluminum is more reactive than copper, as seen in the reactivity series. The product that occurred as a result to the single replacement reaction was Aluminum Chloride and Copper. Proposed Solution The problem that is being tackled in this experiment is how to filter out the chemicals in Flint, Michigan’s water in order to make it safe to drink. It is important to solve this problem because lead at any level is extremely dangerous for humans to consume and come into contact with. Additionally, it is important to note that no level of lead in the water supply is considered safe, but the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has set a maximum level of lead contamination in the tap water in 90% of homes at 15 ppb—also known as the “action level.” That particular sample of Flint water had a lead level close to 1,000 times the action level. Exposure to lead is cumulative over time. High concentrations of lead in the body can cause death or permanent damage to the central nervous system, the brain, and kidneys. This damage commonly results in behavior and learning problems (such as hyperactivity),memory and concentration problems, high blood pressure, hearing problems, headaches, slowed growth, reproductive problems in men and women, digestive problems, muscle and joint pain. Infants, children, pregnant women, and fetuses are more vulnerable to lead exposure than others because the lead is more easily absorbed into the sensitive tissue of actively growing bodies. An equal concentration of lead is more destructive in a child than in an adult. Pregnant women should also be especially cautious about lead exposure, because it can cause premature birth, and reduce the birth weight of babies. The solution to this problem is to add zinc into lead chloride in order to get the lead to precipitate out of Flint Michigan’s water. This solution will alleviate the problem by getting lead to precipitate out of the solution which then can be filtered out of the water. Furthermore, when zinc is added to lead chloride a single replacement reaction will occur due to zinc being more reactive than lead and then taking lead’s place in the ionic compound. ReferencesLead ? gave insight to what the health risks of lead are Conservation of Mass – Reactivity ?  helped with creating a solution for the anchoring phenomenonBackground on Chemical Tests ?  explained what happened during the testsDensity Table ? helped determine what the foil was made out of AcknowledgementsMark Cunanan Morris Shieh