ISSN(Online): off halls, auditoriums and theatres. This

 ISSN(Online): 2319-8753
ISSN (Print): 2347-6710
International Journal of Innovative Research in Science,
Engineering and Technology
(An ISO 3297: 2007 Certified Organization)
Website: www.ijirset.com
Vol. 6, Issue 7, July 2017
Copyright to IJIRSET DOI:10.15680/IJIRSET.2017.0607185 14034
Design and Analysis of Auditorium by Using
STAAD Pro
S.Harish1
, L.Ramaprasad Reddy2
M.Tech, Department of Structural Engineering, Brindavan Institute of Technology and Science, Kurnool JNTU
Anantapuram, A.P, India1
Professor & Head, Department of Civil Engineering, Brindavan Institute of Technology and Science, Kurnool
JNTU Anantapuram, A.P, India2
ABSTRACT: The Auditorium allows for huge conferences, displays and performances. Auditorium consists of
assembly halls, show off halls, auditoriums and theatres. This thesis is about designing an auditorium using STAAD
pro tool. This tool saves time for calculations and studying the structure.
Project is primarily based on limit state concept, the structure shall be designed to resist, it must bare all loads liable to
act on it at some point of its lifestyles; it shall additionally satisfy the serviceability requirements, including limitations
on deflection and cracking. The suited limit for the protection and serviceability necessities before failure happens is
known as a ?limit state. The aim of design is to achieve appropriate chances that the structure will not unfit for the
use. For which it’s indented, that it’s going to not attain a limit state.
I. INTRODUCTION
The Auditorium space types are areas for large meetings, presentations, and performances. Auditorium space type
facilities may include assembly halls, exhibit halls, auditoriums, and theaters. Auditorium space types do not include
such features as sound reinforcement systems, audiovisual systems and projection screens, food service facilities,
proscenium stages with heights greater than 50′- 0″ or fly gallery, orchestra pits, revolving or hydraulic stage platforms,
Flying balconies, movable seating, or billboard systems. Auditorium spaces are designed to accommodate large
audiences. As such, they tend to have wide spans and are multiple-stories high in order to accommodate seating,
sightline, and acoustical requirements. Raised stage/dais floors and special lighting equipment are often required as
well. Typical features of Auditorium space types include the list of applicable design objectives elements as outlined
below.
? Auditorium:
An auditorium is a room built to enable an audience to hear and watch performances at venues such as theatres. For
movie theatres, the number of auditoriums is expressed as the number of screens. Auditoria can be found in
entertainment venues, community halls, and theaters, and may be used for rehearsal, presentation, performing arts
productions, or as a learning space.
Features of Auditorium:
i. Etymology:
The term is taken from Latin (from auditorium, from aud?t?rius (“‘pertaining to hearing'”)); the concept is taken from
the Greek auditorium, which had a series of semi-circular seating shelves in the theatre, divided by broad ‘belts’,
called diatomite, with eleven rows of seats between each.
Auditorium Structure:
The audience in a modern theatre is usually (citation needed) separated from the performers by the proscenium arch,
although other types of stage are common.
ISSN(Online): 2319-8753
ISSN (Print): 2347-6710
International Journal of Innovative Research in Science,
Engineering and Technology
(An ISO 3297: 2007 Certified Organization)
Website: www.ijirset.com
Vol. 6, Issue 7, July 2017
Copyright to IJIRSET DOI:10.15680/IJIRSET.2017.0607185 14035
The price charged for seats in each part of the auditorium (known in the industry as the house) usually varies according
to the quality of the view of the stage. The seating areas can include some or all of the following:
a) Stalls, orchestra or arena
b) Balconies of gallery
c) Boxes
d) Seating arrangement
Sloped floors
Sloped floors, with level terraces for each row of seating, help provide the proper sightlines from the audience to the
stage. Note that the bottom and intermediate rows should be directly accessible from entry levels to allow for
Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines for Buildings and Facilities (ADAAG) compliant accessible
seating positions.
a) Fixed seats
b) Special Lighting
c) Occupancy
Productive
a) Special Acoustical Design
Quality acoustical characteristics are important in Auditorium spaces so that performances and presentations can be
clearly heard and understood. For performance spaces and general presentation spaces, recommended noise criteria
(NC) rating ranges from NC-20 to NC-30; recommended sound transmission class (STC) rating ranges from STC 40 to
STC 50. Strategies to achieve the recommended NC and STC ranges include, for example: Type II vinyl wall covering
and fabric covered acoustical wall panels for the interior wall finish in the auditorium; Type II vinyl wall covering for
the stage area; Type II vinyl wall coverings for 1/3 of the front of the orchestra (audience) sidewalls and fabric covered
acoustical panels for 2/3 of the back of the orchestra (audience) sidewalls; fabric covered acoustical panels for rear
walls; and a plaster and plywood combination—because of their reverberation characteristics—for the ceiling. For
more information, see WBDG Productive—Provide Comfortable Environments.
b) Sustainable:
Increased cooling capacity:
Heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems for Auditorium spaces are sized and zoned to accommodate
varying internal loads, which are a function of audience sizes, performance lighting loads, and projection equipment.
Particularly, air handling units (AHUs) with increased cooling capacity should be zoned separately for the auditorium,
lobby, projection spaces, stage areas, and audience seating areas.
Raised Floor:
The recommended system for distribution of HVAC in auditorium spaces is ducted supply through floor vents with
ducted ceiling return air vents in auditorium and lobby. In other 9 spaces, ducted ceiling supply with return air ceiling
plenum is recommended. Note that there should be transfer ducts at all acoustically rated partitions.
a) Safe / safe
Fire and life safety:
Proper notification systems, lighting, and signage are required to facilitate safe and speedy evacuations during an
emergency in the Auditorium spaces. Step lights recessed into floor risers at each seating tier and wall mounted low
light level sconce lights along side walls are typical. Sprinklers should be provided per code and under stage platforms
to suppress fires.
? Objectives:
i. The objective of the project is to design an auditorium with a large span without compromising safety.
ii. The seating is done considering acoustics.
ISSN(Online): 2319-8753
ISSN (Print): 2347-6710
International Journal of Innovative Research in Science,
Engineering and Technology
(An ISO 3297: 2007 Certified Organization)
Website: www.ijirset.com
Vol. 6, Issue 7, July 2017
Copyright to IJIRSET DOI:10.15680/IJIRSET.2017.0607185 14036
? Necessity:
i. To provide a stage for performing arts.
ii. To accommodate an audience of large members for seminars and lectures.
? Scope of thesis:
This project includes analysis, design and detailing of:
i. R:C:C: columns, beams, slab and footing
ii. Steel roof truss: top chord, bottom chord, bracings and connections.
iii. Seating of auditorium for proper acoustics.
II. LITERATURE REVIEW
? Sullivan and Adler
Designed a tall structure with load-bearing outer walls, and based the exterior appearance partly on the design of H.H.
Richardson’s Marshall Field Warehouse, another Chicago landmark. The Auditorium is a heavy, impressive structure
externally, and was more striking in its day when buildings of its scale were less common. When completed, it was the
tallest building in the city and largest building in the United States.
? Denver Auditorium Arena
Was an indoor arena located at the corner of 13th and Champak Streets in Denver, Colorado. It was constructed as
the Denver Municipal Auditorium in 1908 during the administration of Denver Mayor Robert W. Speer. The building
was opened on July 7, 1908, and was the site of the 1908 Democratic National Convention.
ISSN(Online): 2319-8753
ISSN (Print): 2347-6710
International Journal of Innovative Research in Science,
Engineering and Technology
(An ISO 3297: 2007 Certified Organization)
Website: www.ijirset.com
Vol. 6, Issue 7, July 2017
Copyright to IJIRSET DOI:10.15680/IJIRSET.2017.0607185 14037
PLAN:
Top View:
3D View:
Dimensions of auditorium
STRUCTURAL DESIGN
? Methods of Design:
Reinforced Cement Concrete structures and structural parts could also be manner anybody f the following methods
a. Working Stress method
b. Limit State Method
c. Methods based on Experimental investigations
Limit State Methods
In this, the tactic of style supported limit state conception, the structure shall be designed to withstand it shall safety all
hundreds prone to act on that throughout its life; it shall conjointly satisfy the serviceability necessities, resembling
ISSN(Online): 2319-8753
ISSN (Print): 2347-6710
International Journal of Innovative Research in Science,
Engineering and Technology
(An ISO 3297: 2007 Certified Organization)
Website: www.ijirset.com
Vol. 6, Issue 7, July 2017
Copyright to IJIRSET DOI:10.15680/IJIRSET.2017.0607185 14038
limitations on deflection and cracking. The appropriate limit for the protection and serviceableness necessities before
failure happens is termed a Limit State
The aim of design is to attain acceptable possibilities that the structure will not unfit for the utilization. For which it’s
meant, that is, that it will not reach a limit state.
Assumptions for Design of Members
i. Place sections traditional to the axis stay plain after bending.
ii. The maximum strain in concrete at the outer compression fiber is taken as 0.0035 in bending.
iii. The durability of the concrete is neglected.
iv. The stresses within the reinforcement are derived from representative stress. Strain curve for the type of steel used, for
design functions the partial factor of safety fm, equals to 1.5 shall be applied.
v. The maximum compressive strain in concrete in axial compression is taken as 0.002.
vi. The most compressive strain at the extremely compressed extreme fiber in concrete subjected to axial compression and
bending and once there is no tension on the section shall be 0.0035 minus 0.75 times the strain at the smallest amount
compressed extreme fiber.
? Design of slabs
Clear span along short span, l?=4.295m
Clear span along long span, l?=6.480m
Live load = 2 ??
??
Floor finish = 1.1 ??
??
f?? = 20 ?
???
f? = 415 ?
???
Support conditions: Support on all four edges over all depth is assumed as 125mm
Effective depth: d
d?= D – cover = 125-25= 100 mm
d?= 100-8 = 92 mm
Effective span: Effective span is the least of the following
l?
(1) Clear span + bearing = 4.295+0.225=4.520m
(2) Clear span + effective depth = 4.295+0.10 = 4.395m
?Take l? = 4.395m
l?
(1) Clear span + bearing = 6.480+0.225 = 6.705m
(2) Clear span + effective depth = 6.480+0.10 = 6.580m
? Take l? = 6.580m
= 1.497?2
Hence, the slab is to be designed as a two way slab.
Load calculations: Per unit area of slab
Self weight of the slab = 0.125×25
= 3.125 KN/m2
Live load = 2.0 ??
??
Floor finish = 1.5 ??
??
Total load (W) = 6.625 ??
??
Factored load = 1.5×W
= 1.5×6.625
= 9.9375??
??
ISSN(Online): 2319-8753
ISSN (Print): 2347-6710
International Journal of Innovative Research in Science,
Engineering and Technology
(An ISO 3297: 2007 Certified Organization)
Website: www.ijirset.com
Vol. 6, Issue 7, July 2017
Copyright to IJIRSET DOI:10.15680/IJIRSET.2017.0607185 14039
Design moments and shear forces:
This slab corresponds to Case-4 of Table-26 of IS: 456-2000 as two adjacent edges are continuous.
??
(?ve) = 0.074
??
(+ve) = 0.055
??
(?ve) = 0.047
??
(+ve) = 0.035
M??(?ve) = ??(???)wl?
?
M??(?ve) = ??(???)wl?
?
= 0.047×9.9375×4.3952
= 9.021 KNm
M??(+ve) = ??(???)wl?
?
= 0.035×9.9375×4.3952
= 6.718 KNm
Minimum depth required
The minimum depth required to resist bending moment.
Mu = 0.138 fck bd2
d = 14.204 × 10 /(0.138 × 20 × 1000)
= 71.738 mm < 100 mm Hence provided depth is adequate. REINFORCEMENT Along x-direction (shorter span) Mux,(-ve) = 0.87 Using 8mm diameter bars, spacing of bars S = (a?? A?? ? ) × 1000 = (8?431.953) × 1000 = 116.367 mm Maximum spacing: (i) S = 3d = 3×100 = 300 mm (ii) 300 mm whichever is less Hence, provide 8 mm bars at 110 mm c/c Mux(+ve) = 312.684 mm2 Using 8mm diameter bars, spacing of bars S = (a?? A?? ? ) × 1000 = (8?312.684) × 1000 = 160.750 mm Maximum spacing: (i) S = 3d = 3×100 = 300 mm (ii) 300 mm whichever is less Hence, provide 8 mm bars at 160 mm c/c Along y-direction (longer span): These bars will be placed above the bars in x-direction Muy,(-ve) = 290.631 mm2 Using 8mm diameter bars, spacing of bars S = (a?? A?? ? ) × 1000 = (8?290.631) × 1000 = 172.951 mm Maximum spacing: (i) S = 3d = 3×100 = 300 mm (ii) 300 mm whichever is less Hence, provide 8 mm bars at 170 mm c/c Muy,(+ve) = 212.425 mm2 Using 8mm diameter bars, spacing of bars S = (a?? A?? ? ) × 1000 = (8?212.425) × 1000 ISSN(Online): 2319-8753 ISSN (Print): 2347-6710 International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology (An ISO 3297: 2007 Certified Organization) Website: www.ijirset.com Vol. 6, Issue 7, July 2017 Copyright to IJIRSET DOI:10.15680/IJIRSET.2017.0607185 14040 = 236.624 mm Maximum spacing: (i) S = 3d = 3×100 = 300 mm (ii) 300 mm whichever is less Hence, provide 8 mm bars at 230 mm c/c Reinforcement in edge strip: A?? = 0.12% of gross area A?? = 150 mm2 Using 8 mm dia bars, spacing of bars S = (a?? A?? ? ) × 1000 = (8?150) × 1000 = 335.10 mm ( ) 5d = 5×100 = 500 mm (i) 450 mm whichever is less Hence, provide 8 mm bars at 330 mm c/c in edge strips in both directions Torsion reinforcement: Area of reinforcement in each layer A? = ¾ A??? = ¾ × 312.684 = 234.513 mm2 Distance over which torsion reinforcement is to be provided = 1/5 short span = 1/5 × lx = 4395/5 = 879 mm Using 6 mm bars, spacing S = (a?? A?? ? ) × 1000 = (6?234.513) × 1000 = 120.566 mm Hence, provide 6 mm bars at 120 mm c/c in four layers at corner A where both edges are discontinuous. At the corners where one edge is discontinuous and one edge is continuous A? = 3/8 A??? = 3/8 × 312.684 = 117.256 mm2 Using 6 mm bars, spacing S = (a?? A?? ? ) × 1000 = (6?117.256) × 1000 = 241.133 mm Hence provide 6 mm bars at 240 mm c/c at corners where the one edge is discontinuous and one edge is continuous. CHECK FOR DEFLECTION For simply supported slabs Basic value of ratio = %P? = 100 × (a???s × d) = 100 × ((8) ? ?160 × 100) = 0.314 %f? = 0.58 ×f? = 0.58 × 415 = 240 N/ mm2 Maximum permitted ratio = 26 × 2 = 52 Provided= 43.95 < 52 Hence deflection control is safe. ? Beams: Beam may be a support subjected to transfers load on beams are provided to transfer the load from slab and walls to the columns to that they're connected. Position of beam: Beam position in a very structure depends on the position of walls and spanning of the slabs. Every beam carries triangular load. Types of Beams: i. Main beams ii. Secondary beams Shapes of beams ISSN(Online): 2319-8753 ISSN (Print): 2347-6710 International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology (An ISO 3297: 2007 Certified Organization) Website: www.ijirset.com Vol. 6, Issue 7, July 2017 Copyright to IJIRSET DOI:10.15680/IJIRSET.2017.0607185 14041 i. Rectangular Beam ii. T- Beam iii. L – beam The Rectangular Beams are any divided into i. Singly reinforced rectangular beam ii. Doubly reinforced beams iii. T – Beams Beam stress View of beam stress 3D view ISSN(Online): 2319-8753 ISSN (Print): 2347-6710 International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology (An ISO 3297: 2007 Certified Organization) Website: www.ijirset.com Vol. 6, Issue 7, July 2017 Copyright to IJIRSET DOI:10.15680/IJIRSET.2017.0607185 14042 Design parameter Bending about Z for Beam 91 Load case: 1:EQX Shear along Y for Beam 91 Load Case: 1:EQX ISSN(Online): 2319-8753 ISSN (Print): 2347-6710 International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology (An ISO 3297: 2007 Certified Organization) Website: www.ijirset.com Vol. 6, Issue 7, July 2017 Copyright to IJIRSET DOI:10.15680/IJIRSET.2017.0607185 14043 Deflection in Global Z axis load Case 3 ? Column: The structural members whose magnitude relation of effective lengths to its least lateral dimensions more than there 3 times is thought as Columns. The members whose effective length is less than 3 times the least lateral dimensions are referred to as pedestals. Types of columns i. Short columns ii. Long columns Classification of columns i. Circular columns ii. Square columns iii. Rectangular columns As per material of the columns i. Masonry Column ii. Timber column iii. Steel column iv. RCC column ISSN(Online): 2319-8753 ISSN (Print): 2347-6710 International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology (An ISO 3297: 2007 Certified Organization) Website: www.ijirset.com Vol. 6, Issue 7, July 2017 Copyright to IJIRSET DOI:10.15680/IJIRSET.2017.0607185 14044 Grouping of columns Design load Design results Bending about Z for beam 93 Load case3: Dead Load Shear along Z for Beam 93 Load case: 1:EQX ISSN(Online): 2319-8753 ISSN (Print): 2347-6710 International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology (An ISO 3297: 2007 Certified Organization) Website: www.ijirset.com Vol. 6, Issue 7, July 2017 Copyright to IJIRSET DOI:10.15680/IJIRSET.2017.0607185 14045 Deflection in local Z axis, Load case 3 ? Footings: Footing is that a part of the foundation that is in direct contact with the soil. Reinforced concrete is associate admirably appropriate material for footing and is extensively used for footing of building columns, towers, bridges etc. Types of footings a. Continuous wall footings b. Isolated footings c. Combined footings d. Strap footings e. Raft foundation f. Pile foundation ? Acoustic Issues and Solutions Reducing acoustic noise may be a matter of victimization sound-absorbing material at varied locations around the source of the sound. Once sound waves cross, the amplitude is accumulated. Sound waves are reflected from arduous surfaces, whereas soft surfaces absorb sound. To reduce acoustic problems: 1. Place rugs down initial to absorb the sound that reflects from the ground. Use shag rugs or other rugs with a fur-like quality. 2. Diffuse the reflection from facet and back walls by hanging carpet and draperies from walls. Suspend these sound absorbers behind the source of the sound furthermore as on facet walls. 3. Use bookshelves, storage cabinets and media racks to scale back acoustic noise. These complicated spaces part sound waves ISSN(Online): 2319-8753 ISSN (Print): 2347-6710 International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology (An ISO 3297: 2007 Certified Organization) Website: www.ijirset.com Vol. 6, Issue 7, July 2017 Copyright to IJIRSET DOI:10.15680/IJIRSET.2017.0607185 14046 ? Estimation and costing: The process of knowing well earlier the probable price of all engineering structure is called Quantity measurement of Estimating. III. STAAD PRO ANALYSIS Support reactions Static check results ISSN(Online): 2319-8753 ISSN (Print): 2347-6710 International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology (An ISO 3297: 2007 Certified Organization) Website: www.ijirset.com Vol. 6, Issue 7, July 2017 Copyright to IJIRSET DOI:10.15680/IJIRSET.2017.0607185 14047 Plates shear, membrane ISSN(Online): 2319-8753 ISSN (Print): 2347-6710 International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology (An ISO 3297: 2007 Certified Organization) Website: www.ijirset.com Vol. 6, Issue 7, July 2017 Copyright to IJIRSET DOI:10.15680/IJIRSET.2017.0607185 14048 Bending moment ISSN(Online): 2319-8753 ISSN (Print): 2347-6710 International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology (An ISO 3297: 2007 Certified Organization) Website: www.ijirset.com Vol. 6, Issue 7, July 2017 Copyright to IJIRSET DOI:10.15680/IJIRSET.2017.0607185 14049 Graphs: Beam-99 Stress: Section view IV. CONCLUSION The project is about "Designing and Planning of Auditorium". As this is a prayer hall all the members of the staff assemble here. The total project includes designing of structural members like slab, beams, columns, footings. The designing has been done based on reference of IS code 456:2000 for concrete and SP 16 for steel. The software AutoCAD was used for drawings (plan, section, &elevation) and for drawing reinforcement details of slabs, columns, beams & footings. Various load combinations as per IS code were used, considering seismic load as the major apart from other loads. The structure is stable under various load combinations. This project concludes that the moments and forces appearing in the structure were significantly lower than in case of plane frame under similar loading conditions. Also the project shows that for long spans structures are considerably cost effective than plane frame structures. ISSN(Online): 2319-8753 ISSN (Print): 2347-6710 International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology (An ISO 3297: 2007 Certified Organization) Website: www.ijirset.com Vol. 6, Issue 7, July 2017 Copyright to IJIRSET DOI:10.15680/IJIRSET.2017.0607185 14050 REFERENCES 1 "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 2010-07-09. 2 Pitts, Carolyn (March 10, 1975). National Register of Historic Places Inventory/Nomination: Auditorium Building. National Park Service. Retrieved December 8, 2011. 3 "Auditorium Building". National Historic Landmark summary listing. National Park Service. May 15, 1975. Retrieved 2011-12-08. 4 "Auditorium Building". Commission on Chicago Landmarks. Chicago Department of Housing and Economic Development, Historic Preservation Division. Retrieved December 8, 2011. 5 "Some interior details were probably drawn by Frank Lloyd Wright, who started in Sullivan's office as a draftsman in 1887." Banister Fletcher. A History of Architecture. p. 1241. 6 Sarkowski, John (1956). The Idea of Louis Sullivan. Bulfinch Press. p. 22. ISBN 0-8212-2667-3. 7 Henning, Joel (September 6, 2008). "Form Follows Function, Elegantly: Louis Sullivan designed the Auditorium Theatre's interior to complement its acoustics-driven shape". The Wall Street Journal. Dow Jones & Company. Archived from the original on September 11, 2008. Retrieved 2008- 09-07. Heidi Pawlowski (2005). "Auditorium Building". The Electronic Encyclopedia of Chicago. Chicago Historical Society. Retrieved 2008-09- 07. 8 IS: 2526-1963 code for "Acoustical Design of Auditoriums and Conference Halls".