Main is to reduce accidents at the

 

Main activities done in lab:

•       
Storing chemicals/objects

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•       
Buying chemicals/objects

•       
Disposing chemicals

•       
Labelling chemicals/objects

•       
Cleaning glass wares

•       
Transferring equipment

•       
Experiments

•       
Risk assessments

•       
Dissection

•       
Weighing chemicals or objects

•       
Research

•       
Teaching and learning

•       
Programming

Main Legislation that is relevant to
organisation:

•       
Control of Substances Hazardous to
Health (COSHH)

•       
Management of Health and Safety at Work
Regulations (MHSWR)

•       
Health and Safety at Work Act (1973)

•       
Classification Labelling and Packaging
(CLP)

•       
Manual Handling Operations Regulation
(MHOR)

•       
Display Screen Equipment (DSE)   

•       
Control of Major Accident
Hazards(COMAH)

•       
Electricity at Work Regulation 1989

 

Why legislations are relevant to organisations:

Control of
Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH):  is the law that requires employers to control
substances that are hazardous to health. Under the Control of Substances
Hazardous to Health Regulations (COSHH, 2002) employers are required to either
prevent, reduce or at the very least, control exposure to hazardous substances
in order to prevent ill health to their workers.

•       
: This operation’s aim is to reduce
accidents at the workplaces in order of health and safety. This act says all
the employers or members who are running a company should be prepared in their
emergencies by making action plans. Labs need to follow this act to be prepared
in emergencies in order to save themselves.

 

•       
Health and Safety at Work Act 1973:
This legislation covers the health and safety at their work places. This act
says if a person is running a workplace then he/she should be aware of health
and safety, and organise and set everything clear to deal with hazardous
consequences. Labs need to follow this act to be prepared in emergencies in
order to save themselves.

•       
Classification Labelling and Packaging(CLP):
This law

•       
.

•       
Manual Handling Operations Regulation
(MHOR): 

•       
Display Screen Equipment (DSE)   

•       
Control of Major Accident
Hazards(COMAH)

•       
Electricity at Work Regulation 1989:
This law is to take precautions against the risk of hazards, injuries and
personal health problems. This act says people in workplace need to precautions
when working with electricity. In order to prevent hazards and injuries.
Working in physics lab with electricity, this law puts up first to be careful.

 

http://www.hse.gov.uk/electricity/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hazards of Lab:

•       
Flammable

•       
Toxins

•       
Corrosion

•       
Microbes

•       
Ionising and non-ionising radiation

•       
Extreme heat and pressure

•       
Fire

•       
Noise

•       
Projectiles

•       
Spills of chemicals

•       
Explosion

Hazards of Salon:

•      
Tattooing and piercing tools

•      
Infections & Allergies

•      
Hidden Chemicals

•      
Hair (problems in respiratory system if
some breathe)

•      
Fatigue

•      
Uncertified Technicians

•      
UVA Exposure

•      
A hot pot of wax on the edge of a
trolley

•      
A burnt-out plug socket

•      
Scissors on the edge of a trolley

Common hazards of lab and salon:

•      
Electricity

•      
Spillage

•      
Slips

•      
Repetitive motion

•      
Fire and shock

•      
Pregnant ladies and infants

•      
Sharp objects

•      
Heat burn

•      
Shock

•      
Skin allergies

The safety constraints:

Common safety
constraints:

•      
Sterilisation:

       Sterilisation is the process of removing
unwanted microorganisms like bacteria from the body, which can be removed by
heat, radiation and filtration. In the medical and pharmaceutical industries,
sterilization is needed on an everyday basis in order to promote health and
eliminate the risk of contamination. They are done in both lab as well as
salon.

Sterilisation
is done in lab (biology lab) only when dissecting microorganisms. As there’s a
necessity of removing bacteria and microbes soon after dissecting a
microorganism for hygienic and healthy environment.  They sterilise with normal detergent petri
dishes where microorganisms are kept in. In order to remove bacteria and germs
from petri dishes for next use.

                     Sterilisation is done in
salon to remove germs, prevent from infection from other people when same razor
blades are used and from bacteria. There are different types of sterilisation
for it. They are:

•      
Ultra-violet
sterilisation

•      
Chemical
sterilisation

•      
Glass
Bead sterilisation

•      
Disinfectants
& antiseptics

•      
PPE

 PPE that is Personal Protective Equipment is a
barrier that helps protect from risk. PPE is an important factor in safety when
working in laboratory. PPE is necessary to protect from chemical exposures and
hazards.

 

PPE in lab is
carried out to protect personal stuff and prevent affection of hazards. The
important PPE for lab are:

Lab coat: It’s
necessary to wear lab coat whenever handling chemical and biological materials.
Lab coats protects from person’s skin exposure and personal clothing to
chemical and contaminants and free from the bacterial spread of microorganisms.
lab coats should be buttoned closed and tight for best protection. Gloves:
Wearing gloves is also important when dealing with chemical and biological material.
Gloves should also be worn whenever handling hazardous materials, even in small
quantities. It’s even important to choose appropriate gloves; As there are
particular gloves for particular handlings. There’s a heat gloves for handling
heat and chemical gloves for handling chemicals. It is not important that a
chemical glove will protect from all chemicals. There’s also a guidance for
it.         Goggles: Face and eye
protection is extremely crucial when working in almost every lab. Because if
any hazard incidentally happens, face and eyes are the organs that happens to
be more injured. Safety goggles provide protection against impact hazards, if
chemical spills or splash goggles would provide the best protection. And in the
case of dissection, sharp needle could also be the reason for injury. Minute
particles, gases and fumes could be shielded by goggles.

Personal
protection: Tied up hair if long, wearing full covered pants, closed and tied
shoes will protect best at working in the lab.

Lab coats,
gloves and goggles are the basic PPE needed whilst working in lab. Additional
or intense protection may be needed for other hazards.

PPE in salon
are aprons,
gloves and masks. That are to be worn as their PPE, to prevent from spills,
allergic chemicals and hot wax.                                       

 APRONS: Spills can be protected best by
aprons. Personal stuffs like clothing, body and may be worn jewellery can be
protected by aprons whilst working.                                     

     
MASKS:  Wearing masks while
working could protect face-skin problems such as dermatitis from direct contact
with the substance like splashes & vapours and respiratory problems such as
Asthma in case of inhalation if air is contaminated with hair.                                                                                                                        GLOVES:
Gloves as PPE rescues from heat and infection. Wearing gloves prevents getting
a burn worse if accidentally touches something hot. In case of hot wax in
trolley, if one accidentally puts its hand in a hot wax then gloves are the
barrier against burns.

 

•      
Labelling: Labelling in lab is only
done by the lab technicians. They label all equipment (chemicals, specimens,
etc.,) by its full name(s). They don’t use abbreviations as it can be
ambiguous. Chemicals or other materials are not labelled by the seller or
manufacturer, instead lab technicians are supposed to do that. They have
printed labels on equipment, which clearly states its name, how much is its concentration?
Is it hazardous? Is it corrosive?, Is it flammable?, Is it toxic?, Is it
dangerous, where it has to be stored?, How safe should it be handled? and PPE
information. Labels on the equipment have signs for the identification of
hazards. These things can be found in chemicals like Hcl, NaI and other
chemicals or biological specimens. They get information from the HAZ
CARDS. 

Labelling in salon
products is done by manufacturer when they manufacture. They include the price,
quantity, ingredients (how is it made out of?), where is it made? prevention
from children, what are the chemicals in it? 
where to be stored?, how to be disposed? and Is that allergic?. If a
product is dangerous to health, then the manufacturer has a legal requirement
to ensure that it is labelled with correct hazard symbols. These things can be
seen in some products like shampoos, gel and hair sprays.

 

 Risk assessment:

      Risk assessment is a task or process
carried out before doing a job or work for the purpose of identifying sensible
measures to control or eliminate the significant hazards and determining how or
who are the people being harmed and assessing the hazards and precautions for
it. Literally all jobs do risk assessments.

 In science labs, risk assessment is the
fundamental and prime process that has to be taken in foremost. Lab technicians
are assessed at first instance and then staff and students. It determines
hazards and risks associated with chemicals and other science lab equipment. It
evaluates hazards linked to its concentration, explosion, infection, allergens,
spills etc. And which people are supposed to be more cautious about specific
hazard that would cause more harm. This decreases the causes of risks.

This regulation is
applied for salon as well. They ensure that the pot of wax is safely stayed in
their trolley, makes sure that the electrical wire is not trailing on the
floor, etc. They make certain about the allergens and infections by doing patch
test which is done in customer’s hand to check if a customer is being allergic
to the specific chemical which they are about to use for them.

At conclusion, risk
assessment is done for both lab and salon.

Health and safety
policy:

       Health and safety policy commits that an
arrangement had to be done by a group of employers or employees at the
workplace before any hazards that accidentally happens.

 In labs, wearing PPE is the arrangement for
anonymous hazard that happens. PPE like Lab coats that protects from personal
clothing and prevents from spills to make personal stuff for getting worse.
Wearing gloves and goggles helps to protect hand and eye from chemicals,
infections and sharp objects before happening something hazardous. When in
salon, aprons, gloves and masks are to be worn as their PPE, to prevent from
spills which an APRONS can protect personal stuff, ALLERGIC CHEMICALS which
wearing masks could protect from face and skin and hot products which GLOVES
can protect hands if accidentally falls in hot wax.

 In addition, trained staff and first aid kits
should be provided at the workplaces for such situation before getting anything
worse. For e.g., Co2 and foam fire extinguishers are to be used both
in labs as well as in salon. If water fire extinguishers were used then it
would make fire worsen, just because there is electricity in both workplaces,
if water is used in case of fire, then there would be an electric shocks and
more fire causes in instead of fire getting better.

This legislation
also applies for labs as well as salon. 

 

Storage and
disposal:

           storage and disposal applies for
both lab and salon; they determine which type of product goes in which type of
bin. Or where can a specific product be stored.

 In lab, chemical solvents and liquids are
stored in dry cupboards and disposed in HDPE residue container, biological
stuffs are stored in dry glassed cupboards and disposed in YELLOW bags or
containers labelled with black biohazard symbol, radioactive stuffs are stored
in laboratory in a separate room and stored in RED bags or container labelled
with black radioactive symbol and glasses and sharp objects are stored in the
workplace of laboratory and disposed in SULO bins and YELLOW sharp containers
respectively. So there are different storage and disposal for each type of
product. If products are not stored and disposed properly then people will
suffer from great disastrous hazards.

 Whereas in salon, products are to be stored in
given cupboards. However, there is no specific storage for salon products but
they are disposed by their assessed procedures. Equipment like ashtrays are
disposed when they are clearly washed and cooled before disposal to prevent
fire, sharp & glasses objects are to be disposed by wrapping it up by
tissue or paper to prevent injury and infections of bacteria and chemical
wastes are to be diluted with water and to be washed down in sinks to prevent
flames and ignition of gases.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Risk
Assessment: Assessing the risk assessment first before any
activity in workplace tends to decrease the causes of hazards. Predicting
peoples weakens towards specific things examines how are they suitable to a
specific activity. Risk assessment is really helpful towards labs and salon. It
has lots of benefits and lots of elimination of risks and hazards. Analysing
and comforting ourselves and other people can help rescue or protect something
which occurs bad that causes hurt. E.g.: In labs, before starting an activity
may be an experiment or dissection, risk assessment has to be done before to
make sure who allergic to what. And even in salon, they can’t let people to
start something before training and assessing them.  Risk assessment improves a lot in health and
safety. It guarantees that it could save the one, doing an activity that it’s not
suitable. That is why this assessing has been done in every workplace in search
to protect lives.

Risk assessment audits: This updates the
risk assessments regularly in long or short intervals. To verify the actions
taken are still applicable or they need to be changed. If something changes in
workplace like changing of policies or new things has been arrives then in this
case, in order to protect people by even that, they verify the risk assessment
again so that they don’t expect any risks further.

 

Health and safety policy: Policy says,
“A group of people who are responsible for the organisation and
arrangement of health and safety if they are affected by their activity at
workplace”. Arranging and organising things before an unknown unfortunate
circumstances could help being safe or less harmed rather than having loss of
everything and ruining health. Health and Safety policy improves a lot of
people’s health and safety. There are stack of benefits of having health and
safety policy. By following the regulation people could expect elimination of
hazards, low risks, less price, treatment of health and safety policy don’t
require hospital or expenses of millions of money, prevention of loss and
blessings of saved precious lives.

 

Standard procedures of training
employees: Training is foremost and crucial process before starting any
activity in workplace. Training has to given to the people before starting
their work. Without training one fails in his work and bring hazards closer. In
labs, lab technicians are trained and then they are fluent to do this stuffs.
They can’t touch corrosive substance with their bare hands, if corrosion
happens that actually destroys the body, they have procedures for everything
that to be followed. Or in salon, bleach can’t be used as direct they also have
something that they need to mix well with bleach to avoid the direct contact of
bleach to the customer’s face, if direct contact is applied then that would
create a really big hazard and salon has to be sealed for the purposes of
hazards. To avoid such circumstances, training and procedures has been given to
the people who are responsible.

                                                              

Fire Evacuation system: Fire evacuation
system has to be done if one runs a workplace. They have to train employees
what are the procedures to be      taken
in case of fire. They need to make an action plan and a fire drill for the
precautions. If they know well about Fire Evacuation Plan and fire drill, then
they could escape from fire easily or they may be less harmed. In case of fire,
they need to ensure that there are passageways to escape, there should be at
least one fire extinguisher, fire blanket, fire alarms, there need to be
emergency exit doors, main switch to switch off electricity, organising fire brigades
and sand to absorb fire. These actions can prevent from hazards and health and
safety. This improves health and safety.

Appointing a person in health and safety:
There should be one person who is responsible in saving lives. Then there is a
group for action plan and precautions for everything before hazards happens.
Like lab technicians knows best in what should they have to do in the situation
of hazard. In case of fire in lab, they know which fire extinguishers. They use
Co2 extinguisher. They do not water extinguisher as it could make
fire worse.  This policy improves in
health and safety.

 

Sterilisation: Sterilisation is done in
lab as well as in salon. But in lab, which is mainly biology labs, use of microorganisms
in petri dishes can be washed with detergent normally. But then, in salon,
there are different types of sterilisation. In salon they use Barbicide which
is sterilisation solution which disinfect microorganisms and reduce the
affection and spreading of bacteria or viruses which can cause diseases. Lab’s
sterilisation and salon’s sterilisation are not done in the same method but one
thing is common, which is, they remove germs and reduce the infection and
spreading of diseases from petri dishes in lab and scissors and razors in
salon. There are different hazards for lab and salon. In lab, it’s just
microorganisms in petri dishes which can cause bacterial infection. Whereas in
salon, it’s scissors and razor blades which can cause high infectious bacterial
or virial diseases if sterilisation is not done. If a person with HIV virus is
dressing hair in salon which a hairdresser uses the razor blade, if that
hairdresser uses the same razor blade for next customer, then it would cause
HIV for that next customer as well. So salons need to be very careful in
dealing with people surviving from viruses or diseases. Or else they are
risking other people’s life. These are the things which labs and salons need to
take with sterilising.