Mali Focused areas of French power such

Mali is a colony of France and they did win independence in 1960, but France remained to have

strong political and economic ties throughout the country. In focused areas attacks on Malian
ground meant attacks against France. France decided to re-deploy troops in 2012 when Northern
rebellion drew attention. Focused areas of French power such as Bamako, the capital of Mali,
served as a French hub for logistics against fighting extreme islamic terrorists. In 2013 this hub
was attacked by Tuareg rebels, an independent political organization. In addition to these rebels
the Islamic group Ansar Dine, descendents of Al-Qaeda, also fought the government and gained
control of vast territory. In May of 2012 the Al-Qaeda descended group Ansar Dine took the UN
heritage site in Timbuktu. They began to enforce very strict Sharia law banning music and
destroying Islamic Tombs. This turn in power caused economic and public safety instability. The
neighboring International countries had noticed: Both the Economic Community of West African
States (ECOWAS) and the United Nations arranged to deploy troops to Mali in 2012. In, The
World Report 2013: Mali, the events taking place in 2012 were summarized as, “Several armed
groups—which began operations in January 2012 and by April had consolidated control of the
northern regions of Kidal, Gao and Timbuktu—committed often-widespread abuses against
civilians. These included sexual abuse, looting and pillage, summary executions, child soldier
recruitment, and amputations and other inhumane treatment associated with the application of

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Islamic law.” The North was able to be so swiftly taken due to captain Amadou Sanogo
launching a coup against then-President Amadou Toumani Toure? because of his weak
government response to Tuareg rebellion. The power struggle in Mali then became a leading
humanitarian issue. Surrounding countries started to fear their security. After the central town of
Konna was captured in January 2013, France stepped in to protect its politically entangled
interests. After Mali Independence, France still held power in the la Franc?afrique region which is
why they were inclined to act when the region was infringed upon. Francis Hollande took the
presidency in France in 2012 deploying 4,000 troops gradually. This deployment was supported
by 2?3 of the French population which signifies how essential the Malian State is to the French. In
2013 when peacekeeping forces from both France and the U.S. secured an election for Ibrahim
Boubakar Keita, who received 78% of the votes, the country had turned relatively calm. In
January 2013 French forces, called upon by Mali, they captured Gao and Timbuktu and at the
end of the month entered Kidal, the last serious rebel-ruled town. When Keita secured the
presidency France gave responsibility for security in the north to the Minusma UN force. Tuareg
rebels returned to fighting the government rather than leading it, and Islamic extremists returned
to forging isolated attacks against the French. France reduces 60% of deployed troops in Mali to
1,000 by March 2014. The following year in April fighting arises as Coordination of Azawad
Movements northern rebels clash with UN peacekeepers in Timbuktu and capture Lere. Rebels
also attempt to recapture Menaka from pro-government militia. In May 2015 when French
operatives killed leaders of Al-Queda Amada Ag Hama and Ibrahim Ag Inawalen a peace accord
is finally signed between Mali government and rebel groups. The following July The UN rebuilt
the world-renowned mausoleums in Timbuktu that were previously destroyed by Islamic

extremists in 2012. Islamic extremists continued to execute attacks, by 2016 more than 100 UN
peacekeepers had been executed. This defines as one of the most dangerous places to be
deployed under service for the UN. In february 2017 BBC reports on, “Malian soldiers and rival
militia groups including Tuareg separatists take part in a joint patrol, a key part of a peace
agreement reached in 2015.”The order of the UN Multidimensional Stabilization Mission in Mali
(MINUSMA )is planned to be end on 30 June 2018. Mali continues to deploy soldiers to protect
themselves from terrorists and rebels. Mali pleads to its alliance with Nato and especially France
to continue to ensure safe transfers of powers during presidential elections. Mali also needs
soldiers for active persecution of rebel camps and organizations. Without these troops Mali will
continue to face terror attacks and not only government official deaths, but also civilians.