MemorandumTo: Values in Community Policing b- Tackling

MemorandumTo:  Kenneth J. GrossbergerFrom:  Ceres JohnDate:  December 16, 2017Subject:  Expansion of Neighborhood PolicingIntroduction The Neighborhood policing is an excellent approach to rebuild trust between the communities and the Police Department in New York City.  Many significant incidents have created an environment of mistrust and breakdown in communication for both sides.  Effective training has shown to have a positive impact on community and police relations.  The model of police and community working collaboratively to find solutions to quality of life issues and combat crime is a model that is being adopted by major police departments, including the NYPD.Hypothesis This author hypothesizes that training and officer’s involvement are the essential elements of any successful Neighborhood Policing program for the different communities in this city. Trained officers are more efficient dealing with issues and concerns for the community they serve.  When a police department has a participative management approach to policing, the members have a positive outlook, and they are more involved in finding solutions to problems.  This paper will be reviewing research articles that show a strong, correlation between job satisfaction and effective community relations.Literature Review1-Implementing Community-Oriented Policing: Organizational Change and Street Officer Attitudes This primary research study analyzed survey data from 285 nonsupervisory officers in six small to midsize law enforcement agencies to examine how Community-Oriented Policing training effect Officers attitude toward the programs principles, support for COP, and job satisfaction. The results indicate that community police officers spend more time engaged in COP-related activities, are more supportive of COP methods and goals, more supportive of organizational changes necessary to implement COP, and more satisfied with their jobs when compared to traditional officers. Also, officers who perceived their department as having a participatory management style were more positive about community policing and more satisfied with their jobs.Four additional articles or studies for research information and data                                                                      a- Conflicting Values in Community Policing b- Tackling crime, disorder, and fear: A New Policing Model c- Community Policing and D.A.R.E.: A Practitioner’s Perspective d- Cops, Community Policing, and the Social Norms Approach to Crime Control        Analysis, strengths, and weaknesses of researchThe data came from an evaluation of community policing in five communities and one county in North Carolina: the police departments in Asheville, Greensboro, Lumberton, Whiteville, and Morehead City and the sheriff’s department in Forsyth County. The six agencies represent a range of community sizes, are spread among the three regions of the state (east, central, and west), and had implemented some form of COP at least one year before the study. The main conclusion is that compared to traditional officers, community-oriented officers are more accepting of programs policing strategies, more positive about COP’s effect on crime, more supportive of community policing in general and in their agency. A second key finding is that officers who perceive their organization as having a participatory management style are more accepting of nontraditional policing activities, more optimistic about the impact of COP on police-community relations, and more satisfied with their current assignment. The Community-oriented officers received more training in COP than do traditional officers and spend more of their work time engaged in community-oriented activities. COP officers analyzed problems, working with residents to solve local issues. The strength of the study is its data, which comes from six different agencies. Most studies focus on a single organization. The regression equations control for demographic, training, perceived decision-making variables, and beliefs about COP are independent of gender, ethnicity, or length of law enforcement service. The more positive perceptions and attitudes found in COP officers are not due to differences in values. A few issues identified as problematic in this study. First, the authors did not have information on officer attitudes before the introduction of COP in their agency. Second, the study does not have a comparison agency that had not implemented COP, therefore the extent to which the organizational changes associated with community policing affect officer attitudes could not be measured efficiently.    The present study concentrated on three major themes. First, what organizational changes that law enforcement agencies have to enact when making the transition to community-oriented policing. Second, how training affects the behavior of community-oriented officers different from traditional officers. Third, how officers’ attitude is related to how effective the program will be in a Department.MethodologyHypothesis – H1= What are some organizational changes that small to midsize law enforcement agencies have to make to have a productive Community Policing Program?Population = 962 police officers and supervisors (Total number of sworn officers)Asheville -169 ; Greensboro- 447; Lumberton- 69; Whiteville -26; Morehead 31; Forsyth -220Sample = 519 Police Officers took a survey between April 1 and June 31, 1996Sample frame = 285 Officers completed the surveyUnit of analysis = Examining how officers who received training in COP feel about their job, support for the program, and how they interact with the community versus officers who did not receive trainingDependent variable = TrainingIndependent variables = Race, gender, years as officers, education, current assignment, perception about decision making within the agencyAnalysis The NYPD implemented the Community Policing Officer’s Program (CPOP) during the 1980s; the role of the officers was to interact with the community, working with residents to help pinpoint crime and quality of life problems.  CPOP became the model of policing in the NYPD in the early part of the 1990s. In 1994, William Bratton, then Chief of the NYPD Transit Bureau introduced Compstat, a tool to track crime and implement strategies to reduce it.  After a while, precinct commanders started to use it to track patrol officers activities such as the number of arrests, summonses and stop, question and frisk reports (NYPD-UF250s).  The majority of people stopped, arrested and summonsed were Blacks and Hispanics in the minority community.  NYPD dramatically moved away from community policing to a numbers-driven department.  Compstat inadvertently created a top-down management style in the NYPD; commanders were being proactive about addressing crime, and they placed pressure on patrol officers for more arrests, summonses, and uf250s.  This pressure created a problem in which patrol officers started to ticket, arrest, and stopping the residents they were sworn to protect; officers had limited discretion.   During this period, which carried over into the years 2000 to currently, the tension between the police and the minority community exploded, widening the gap that started in the 1960s.   On May 18, 2015, the NYPD along with Mayor Bill de Blasio introduced the Neighborhood Coordination Officer program (NCO) as a pilot in few patrol precincts in Manhattan and Queens. The intent was to have officers working in partnership with citizens within the communities in which they serve and close the divide and mistrust between the police and the community.  There will be two (2) NCOs per sector in each Police Service Area (PSA, also known as housing) and Precinct (PCT); in other words, if each PSA and PCT deploy five (5) sectors per day, then each PSA and PCT will have 10 NCOs.  Generally, in a PSA and PCT, four (4) is the typical number of sectors deployed each day; therefore, this paper can safely assume that each PSA and PCT will have eight (8) NCOs which are considered a squad.  Further, one (1) sergeant will be assigned to supervise a team of 8 NCOs; the span of control will be one to eight (1:8). Also, the NCOs will collaborate with the citizens of the communities to pinpoint crime and address quality of life problems.  Currently, the program expanded to approximately fifty-one percent (51%) of all commands (77) citywide which includes patrol precincts in the boroughs of Brooklyn, Queens, Bronx, Staten Island and one hundred percent (100%) in all PSAs in the NYPD.  Further, this paper will look at some of the issues with the NYPD style of policing minority communities, and the outcry from the citizens which forced the organization to take a hard look at what its tactics were doing to its citizens.  This paper will also look at strategies that the NYPD used or could have used to implement the NCO program successfully.   The outcry from the minority communities of police violating their rights with illegal stop and frisk tactics, unwarranted summonses, arrests, fatal shootings and encounters with black men which resulted in deaths, forced the NYPD to change its strategies for addressing and pinpointing crime within the minority communities.  Further, a class action lawsuit, “Floyd, et al. v. The City of New York, et al. (2008)” was brought against the NYPD about stop, question and frisk, alleging that police stop Blacks and Hispanics men more than their white counterparts.  A federal judge ruled against the NYPD in August 2013 stating that the NYPD’s stop, question and frisk tactics were unconstitutional; the judge also commissioned an outside agency to monitor the actions of the NYPD and to help the organization to revamp its stop, question and frisk procedures.  Major crimes and shootings in NYC have been steadily declining, so the NYPD could not justify its continued aggressive enforcement, in particular, the minority communities. The organization had to make a change in its tactics and strategies. The NYPD expects changes with the implementation of the NCO’s program because community policing programs have worked in the past, but there was no consistency with the continued development of the program, which eventually led to its failure.  This time around, the organization recognizes that for the program to be long-lasting, all top leaders in the NYPD have to be unified and sharing the same vision, and commitment in place to make all resources available, which include money for the continued development of the program.  Denhardt et al. (2016) argued about shared vision, which leaders have to get key people to buy into to make it work. “But leaders not only have to articulate the vision; they also have to inspire others to buy into that vision, something that is partly dependent on leader’s energy and enthusiasm in carrying the vision forward.” (p. 194).            The model used for the application derives from another law enforcement agency which was a success. That model is called Senior Lead Officer program created by former Police Commissioner William Bratton in Los Angeles. The model used was to use volunteer police officers in the program; the officers wanted and were excited about participating in the program.   The NYPD observed the Compstat figures of arrests, summonses, index crimes and the number of uf250s written.  The figures were then broken down into demographic areas which show the disparity between Black and Hispanic communities and their white counterparts.  The numbers of uf250s continued its’ increased year after year, even when the NYPD reported the decline in major crimes year after year. Eterno, J. A., & Silverman, E. B. (2012) stated “Such an increase in stop-and-frisk reports at a time when the department also claims crime is down tremendously defied logic.” (pp. 221-222).  The repercussions of this debacle were the filing of numerous lawsuits against the NYPD and the city of New York for violating its Black and Hispanic citizens’ civil rights.   In other words, there appear to be a correlation between the increased in persons stopped and an increase in lawsuits. This paper proposed that the distrust between the police and the minority communities probably started with the emergence of the 911 system which took officers off the streets, out of the communities and into patrol cars, answering calls for service during their entire tour, becoming a slave to the radio and inadvertently ignoring the citizens within the communities.  Also, with fewer officers walking the streets, it left the door open to crime increasing within the communities.  Officers had minimal communication related to the quality of life issues and ways to address crimes in partnership with the community.  Tackling crime, disorder, and fear: A new policing model (n.d.) stated: “The advent of the 911 system in the late 1960s had a perverse effect of reducing police presence on the street, as officers chased calls for service as a priority.” (p. 1).   Also, racism helped caused the problem of distrust between the police and the minority communities. Mayor Bill de Blasio in Transcript: Mayor Bill de Blasio, Police Commissioner William Bratton held a press conference to discuss latest crime statistics (2016), he argued that racism is one of the reasons for the distrust between the police and the minority communities.  He stated “The stain of racism underlies all of this.  It is being talked about in a way it never has before- literally in American history, never has been so blunt a discussion of racism and what it has meant to our country.” (p. 16). Further, the deaths of several black men by the police all over the country (Akai Gurley and Eric Garner by the NYPD), the near-deadly riots that often erupted all over the country, and the rise of the group Black Lives Matter have further increased the distrust between the minority communities and police.  The death of Eric Garner occurred when the officer was enforcing the low-level offense of selling untaxed cigarettes with heavy-handed tactics, and Akai Gurley died when the officer was patrolling inside a predominantly black housing development, with his firearm in hand, and got spooked when he heard the door in the stairwell opened.   The conflict between enforcing the rules and violating citizens’ constitutional rights help to build the distrust between the minority communities and the police. Thacher, D. (2001) stated: The suspicious attitude of the police is apparently palpable to many community members, who believe their privacy is being violated and their rights ignored, as evidenced by a 1998 survey that reported the majority of Knoxville’s black community believes that police treat blacks poorly (Lyons &Scheb 1998). (pp. 784-785)   When former NYPD police commissioner William Bratton took office, he asked of his officers to do quality work (includes arrests, summonses, and uf250s), not quantity.  He wanted to move away from a numbers-driven department, to an agency that will work in collaboration with all communities. Tackling crime, disorder, and fear: A new policing model (n.d.) stated: “More enforcement is not the only answer to reducing crime, especially in a time when the crimes are steeply reduced, and some neighborhoods are increasingly alienated from the police.” (p. 6). Further, the NYPD needs more accountability.  Meares, T. L. (2002) stated: Through increased accountability, police are more likely to direct their energies to problems and issues that residents care about; moreover, increased accountability is likely to reduce the violation by law-enforcement officials of individual rights pertaining to searches, seizures, and the like. (p. 1630). In other words, the more accountability the police have, the better it will for the communities in which they serve.  It is likely that citizens’ constitutional rights would be less threatened.  In the context of the NYPD and its implementation of the NCO’s program, more accountability will deter officers from using heavy-handed tactics; it will help the police to work side by side with all citizens to solve quality of life problems and to pinpoint crimes. Accountability will help build the trust between the communities and the police.Conclusion    With the implementation of the NCO’s program, senior leaders from mayor Bill de Blasio, former police commissioner William Bratton, and police commissioner James O’Neill redesigned the way the organization fought crime.  They rid of all the condition teams (specific functions were to make arrests and write summonses) in every patrol and housing commands, adding more officers on foot patrol, Anti-crime units (particular purpose is to make felony and gun arrests) and some (the ones who volunteered) to the NCO’s program. The research study showed that training and officer involvement are vital components of a thriving Community Policing program.  The data shows that it is more efficient to train all the officers and make them participate in the decision making and direction of the program, so they can remain motivated and engaged with the community.  It is vital for the community and rank in files in the police department to believe the concept of Community Policing as an actual problem-oriented crime-fighting philosophy instead of a Court mandated program imposed by the judicial branch of government.  The distrust between the community and the police existed for years, but the NCO’s requirement of constant interaction with citizens is starting to show some definite improvement.  This paper suggests the continual monitoring, evaluation of the program, analyzing civilian complaints against officers, and identify locations of reduced crimes.Policy Recommendations This paper’s policy recommendation is for Community-Oriented police training for all uniformed personnel.  If all members receive training on effective mediation, and investigation, the overall philosophy of community policing will be an excellent crime-fighting strategy.  Currently, some precincts and PSA’s are having issues related to transfer, promotions of trained NCO personnel, but with a department-wide training, the position will never be vacated. The Department has to continue to work in partnership with the community and allow them to become keys stakeholders in the program. References         Adams, R. E., Rohe, W. M., & Arcury, T. A. (2002). Implementing community-oriented policing: Organizational change and street officer attitudes. Crime & Delinquency, 48(3), 399-430.Eterno, J. A., & Silverman, E. B. (2012). The crime numbers game: Management by manipulation. CRC Press.Mayor de Blasio and Commissioner Bratton announce the expansion of neighborhood policing program to 51 percent of commands citywide (August 2, 2016). Retrieved from