p.p1 scale Introduction Organisational commitment is concerned

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Organisational commitment scale
Introduction
Organisational commitment is concerned with the degree of attachment and loyalty possessed by an individual towards an organisation. Organisational commitment can also be described as “an attachment to the organisation, characterised by an intention to remain in it; an identification with the values and goals of the organisation; and a willingness to exert extra effort on its behalf” (Porter et al, 1974). A workforce that is committed will see everyone working together in the best way they can and finally, gaining satisfaction from all their efforts.
Organisational commitment results in enhanced quality and improved productivity along with a decrease in absenteeism, defective output, employee turnover etc. There is excitement about one’s work which is brought about by trust, accountability pride and confidence in the management and is enhanced by competence and dedication.
A committed individual will work hard and be proud of his abilities, works well with others and use time in a constructive way, will pay attention to minor details and aim to get things right the first time etc.
TheoriesThe three-component model of commitment by Meyer and Allen (1991) says that different psychological states correspond with the three components of commitment which the model proposes. The need for the model arose when it was felt that it would help interpret research that already exists as well as would act as a framework for the research that would be carried out in the future.
The model describes the organisational commitment to be a psychological state and also states that it has three components with each of these components  affecting the way employees feel about the organisation that they are a part of. The three components are:-
Affective CommitmentAn individual who identifies strongly with the goals and values of the organisation that he works for will genuinely feel an emotional connection with the organisation and will truly want to belong there.Enjoying one’s work is also an aspect here because the job satisfaction that results from this will likely boost organisational commitment. This is the ‘desire’ component.

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Continuance CommitmentAn employee would experience this sort of commitment towards his or her organisation if he or she ever decides to consider the pros and cons of leaving there. One might feel that the benefits that the current job and organisation offer (in terms of pay, security, experience and hard work of many years, peers and colleagues etc) are extremely good and that the loss of all these will outweigh the benefits of a new job at another organisation. These losses that the employees perceives do not only have to involve monetary aspects but other psychosocial aspects as well. An employee who has been with an organisation for a long time, who is established and experienced is more likely to feel this sort of commitment.

Normative CommitmentNormative commitment comes into the picture if an individual feels that he or she is obligated to continue with their role in an organisation, whether or not they are satisfied. An employee wanting to explore other avenues of work might decide to leave to the organisations because of the same reason but may feel obligated to stay because he knows of the efforts and resources that the organisation has invested in him. He may have been brought up a certain way or may feel that because of what the organisation has done for him, he owes the organisation and normative commitment comes into play.
About OCS and applications
The organisational commitment scale has its primary usefulness in working with large groups, it may be for either survey or research purposes. An individual who is low in organisational commitment may not have a genuine concern for the organisation and may not truly identify with it. This will impact the way he works within the organisation and may affect his colleagues as well. Thus, the scale will help screen out such individuals for counselling or experimental purposes. The scale is self administering and does not require a trained individual for testing. It can be administered with a single individual as well as a group.
MethodologyAim: To measure the organisational commitment of an individual
SampleThe subject, S.A,  is a 52 year old male. He has been working at the current organisation of the past 4 years. He holds the position of the head of recoveries for the organisation and his responsibilities towards the organisation include The organisation, DLL (De Lage Landen), is a global vendor finance company which provides asset-based financial solutions in the Healthcare, Clean technology, Transportation, Agriculture, Food, Construction, Industrial and Office technology industries. It is a part of the Rabobank group.
Measure or toolThe organisational commitment scale is used to measure the level of organisational commitment of an individual. The authors of the scale are Upendar Dhar, Prashant Mishra and D.K SrivastavaThe scale has two factors and eight items.
ReliabilityThe reliability was determined by split-half reliability co-efficient, corrected for full length. The sample included 500 subjects from ages of 22 years to 55 years.The reliability of the scale is 0.6078.
Validity
Positive items
FactorsThe scale has two factors:-(a) Factor 1: Concern for the organisation. This includes items 1, 2, 3, 5 and 7. (b) Factor 2: Identification with the organisation. This includes items 4, 6 and 8.
ProcedureI had told the subject that I would be conducting a test on him before I met him. I met him and I ensured that the room where the test would be conducted was as free from distractions as possible.Since the subject and I have known each other for many years and we are on good terms with each other, the usual rapport building was not necessary. I explained to him the rules of the test. I told him that there was no time limit and that he did not have to feel pressured to complete it within a certain amount of time. I mentioned that the test results would help in self knowledge and that there was no right, wrong, good or bad answers but no question should be left blank. I explained that he had to put numbers according to his agreement or disagreement. I assured him that all information would be kept confidential. I did not, however, tell him the exact purpose for which the test was being conducted.
Observation reportThe subject was alert and attentive when I explained the rules to him. He did not seem doubtful about anything and he was in a good mood and was joking with me when we were speaking before the test but as soon as the conversation turned towards the test, he assumed a profession attitude and attempted the test seriously but his jolly mood returned as soon as he finished the introspective report. Conversion occurred after completion of the test where the subject mentioned that he is someone who does not feel good unless he ‘gives his all’ to whatever he does. Asking me about my college, he said that fun and games should be there in life but they need to be put to one side where work is considered which is not to say that the attitude towards work should be gloomy but should be one of ‘professional curiosity’ and a ‘go-getter attitude’. He also considers family to be important above all else.
Introspective report”I felt that the questions were easy for me to answer. I did not have to think very much. I thought the test would take up some time but it was over quickly. I was comfortable, there was nothing to distract. I was told that I could ask any doubts if there was a need but I did not have to ask. I was extremely calm and collected. I was not sleepy or hungry. I was able to focus completely while answering. ”
ScoringScoring was done manually. Each item was given a score of 5, 4, 3, 2, 1. (This is for the positive items) and the rated scores should be reversed for the negative items. The sum of all the scores constitute the O.C score.

Results and discussions

 The overall score is 37 which falls in the category of high organisational commitment. Factor wise, factor 1 score is 25 which is also in the high range. Factor 2 score is 12 which is in the normal range.

The subject has a high organisational commitment, overall.
The subject has a concern for the organisation. He cares about the reputation of the organisation, about the targets and the goals. I feel that, based on what I have been able to gather about him, he is someone who will never enter into anything lightly. H has mentioned that he will not feel good if he does not give his all to whatever it is he is doing, that includes his job as well. He knows he is part of this organisation and is genuinely concerned about its wellbeing. 
According to his answers on the test, he believes that he is contributing towards the achievement of the goals of the organisation. If he feels that he is an integral part of the team and an important factor in the overall success of the organisation then he will get an enhanced sense of self worth and a feeling of belonging as a valued member of the team which is clearly something he feels. Thus, this likely contributes to the amount of commitment he feels towards his organisation.

Organisational commitment is a concept which is largely psychological in nature. Based on the sort of person he is, he is not someone who is likely to do things half heartedly. His feelings towards his organisation, to an extent, stem from his personality as well. He puts his best efforts into his work in whatever he does, he is extremely meticulous as well. It is possible that this behaviour of his has lead him to attract people of a similar disposition and thus, he has a group of people who work hard and this definitely can contribute to his feelings of high organisational commitment.
Certain personality factors also are positively elated to organisational commitment. Among these are the traits of achievement motivation and competence. The subject may also possess these traits in some measure.
As the subject mentioned, to have a ‘go-getter attitude’ towards ones work is important and an attitude such as this leads to increased involvement and voluntary participation and contribution. An employee who is more actively involved is more likely to consider himself a part of the organisation and to consider it to be his own organisation as compared an individual who might wait for opportunities to come automatically to him. Thus, this can also be a reason why there is a high level of organisational commitment seen here.
Even though the concept of organisational commitment is largely psychological, it also depends on what the organisation actually offers that would lead the employees to be committed to it. As far as the organisation is concerned, to have an employee who is having high levels of commitment towards it, they must have some aspects that the subject finds desirable. In general, it is quite possible that they invest proper time and resources into their communication system, their team building activities ad in providing employees with adequate advancement opportunities. These are all basic aspects that can lead to enhanced job satisfaction and thus boost organisational commitment.
Also, it may be possible that if there are any aspects where the organisation falls short, the subject may be comparing this to the previous organisations where he has worked.
The subject’s scores, as far as the second factor is concerned, far within the normal range. That is, his identification with the organisation is not very high. It could be due to a lesser degree of alignment of the organisation’s goals with his own goals. It is possible that he finds the core values of the organisation to be different for his own. And since he is someone who stands for what he believes in, he may not be easily swayed by others’ values of he has chosen not to adopt them.Going by the overall commitment, it does not seem that he does not have any values in common with the organisation but there might be some aspect where his stance differs.
For example, he would value spending time with his family on holidays rather than spending time away from them so it is possible he would score lower in questions pertaining to that aspect. Maybe he is expected to be at his workplace at times that he would rather spend with his near and dear ones. This is a conflict of interest though not a major one since he does not neglect his work and does not always refrain from putting in extra hours at the office. Also, since he has been working for a large part of his life, it is possible that his priorities have shifted and he is looking to be with his family more now.
Another aspect why he does not identify with the organisation very much could be their emphasis on social work or lack thereof. The subject is usually involved in some social work or the other and maybe he would identify with the organisation more if their efforts were directed more towards the social sector.

According to the three-component model of commitment by Meyer and Allen, the subject would have a high affective commitment. Clearly, he values the organisation and his position at the organisation is also as a valued member. He has a desire to be a part of the organisation and give his best to all that he does there, his desire is evident.
The continuance commitment for the subject would not be very high because it is not for fear of losing out that he is at at his current job. He is there because he wants to be and he mentioned that he has not considered leaving this organisation. However, if he were to consider leaving then the factor that would most likely keep him there would be continuance commitment because finding another job at his age might pose a problem and the perceived losses would be greater. As he grows older, the perceived losses would accumulate.
I feel that the level of normative commitment would be low because the subject has always given all his efforts without holding back and he likely feels that, at the end of the day, he does not owe the organisation anything. At the very least, he would not feel compelled to stay on in the organisation with the only reason being an obligation to continue working there. The subject has a pragmatic approach to life and in a world where organisations see people come and go and vice-versa, he would not be bound by such a commitment.

Conclusion
In conclusion, the level of organisational commitment of the subject is high. It is due to the way the subject chooses to conduct himself, his ideals and beliefs. It is also because of the way the organisation functions and the kind of job satisfaction the subject has there. However, job satisfaction can not be the only determinate because an individual may be unhappy with his job but otherwise happy with the organisation.
He has a high level of the most positive form of commitment, affective commitment and his work is fuelled by his desire to work. He is committed to the organisation because he choses to be and not because anything is forcing him to be.
He has a high concern for the organisation he represents and works for but he identifies with it to a lesser extent which again, could be due to individual differences. He likes the direction and goals of the organisation but they do not necessarily encompass all the goals he has for himself.
His personality has a large role to play, he has a strong work ethic and a pragmatic view of life.

References
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organizational_commitment#Affective_commitmentAppendix