Society style and language measures as unsatisfactory

Society usually believe that when a person speaks he communicate what he really want to say. but it’s not always true. on the one hand he intends to say something’s but on the other hand he communicates more information which can be much different from what he wanted to point out in the beginning. many times we will judge of who he is by what he say or not say and the way he choose to say it.    The human speech providing information on at list two forms on information. the first is the vocal channel, the paralinguistic information such as variations in pitch, speech rate, loudness, and the like. and the verbal channel, which is the messages that been transmitted by the speaker.   In linguistics, intonation is variation of spoken pitch is used for a range of functions such as indicating the attitudes or the emotions of the speaker, signaling the difference between statements and questions, focusing attention on the important information of the spoken message and also helping to regulate conversational interaction.   Relatively few studies have examined the effect of personality on fluent speech   (Carell, Prince & Astika, 1996). the existing literature on the relationship between personality style and language measures as unsatisfactory and frustrating because of an lack of information and not consistent.  the theories that exist are frequently at a too molecular level in that they deal with the relationship between a limited number of selected variables or too high range in the meaning that by being too general they are either useless because the information that being produced cannot be widely used or it is so specific for only one case (Furnham 1990).    By (apple, 1979) stressful situations raise the vocal fundamental frequencies ( the number of vibrations in a second) and that “activated” emotions such as anger or fear are expressed by an increase the mean pitch while low energy emotions such as sadness and sorrow are expressed by an decrease of the pitch mean.     The question if personality traits or emotional affects can be distinguished by the vocal information alone was investigated by Allport’s study (allport, 1934) they made 6 experiments to investigate if a person could find the speaker personality traits by listening alone. at 4 out of the 6 experiments they found that the ascendance-submission judgment was significant accuracy.  The idea that the vocal dimension has information about the speaker has  been proven by several studies, but getting to more accurate studies a new dimension was needed to be investigated. that led to the idea that the information might be miss leading. “vocal stereotype” just as we have stereotype for visual perception, when we take different characteristic which affect the way we judge the person in front of us as the cloth he wear or the way he stands we do the same by vocal information.   Dewaele (1995), has explained that the perception that  the speakers have for the listener depends on the formality of the situation. but also the speaker style of speaking will be changed by the formality of the situation. The choice of speech style will depend on the need of the speaker to be understood and it is decided in the situation itself. so in different situation the speaker choice of reaction is information about the speaker mind itself, which can lead to “vocal stereotypes”. it were found to have the greatest impact on the accuracy of the person judgment on the voice that was presented in the studies (kramer 1963).    It was found that a high pitch has the result of making the speaker seems as less competent and less benevolent while a fast speech rates produce judgment of high competent but also an inverted U correlation. (Smith et al., 1975). in general speaking if a man with a high pitch voice would like to appear more competent he should up the speed of his speech.    It was found that judgments were most influenced by tempo and pitch variations, so that a fast tempo led to association of highly active and potent emotions such as interest, anger, and happiness and slow tempo to association of sadness, disgust, and boredom. extreme pitch variation with rising contours produced ratings of highly pleasant, active, and potent emotions (happiness, surprise, interest). (scherer 1993)    Apple et al found that, men with high-pitched voices are judged as less truthful, less persuasive, weaker, and more nervous. and a slow-talking men are judged to be less truthful, fluent, emphatic, serious, and persuasive, or more passive, although they are also seen as more potent. some additional information they found on the study was that nervousness increased when pitch is increasing, whereas rated persuasiveness decreases in the same time.    Interesting work of  Dewaele found more detailed information about what is effecting the different in the speech component between different personality traits speakers. in a formal situation, an  interpersonal stress is a raised , has the strongest effect on the speech production process of the introverts. they found two explanations can be formulated for the introverts decrease of  fluency in the formal situation , it may be that they are unable to maintain the same level of  automaticity of speech production when they are under some kind of stress (being observed or tested). They slide back to controlled processing which overloads their working memory and by so unable to produce the same speech fluency. it causes their speech to slow down hesitate more and tend to make more linguistic errors while speaking. the second option is the choice of the speaker to use more formal or explicit speech style. The choice of a more explicit style means a drain on cognitive resources in the speech production process, because it implies much more lexical searching for lower frequency words and structures. Introverts choice of an explicit speech style did not affect the rest of the speech production process ( Dewaele, J et al 2000)          It is a very complicated figure to explain the difference how different speech is effecting the perceived personality traits of the speaker. because beside for the different  linguistics information layers such as the tone, speed, pitch and energy, there are the situational factors of both the frame that the speaker is being at. for example a speaker which is Italian and speaks with a specific tone or pitch could be judged for certain personality traits while if it was an English man he was judge completely different became of the cultural differences between the two and what is considered normal or unique in that culture.