The 2011). As for automation and control,

ultimate aim is to utilize the system to enhance tourism experience and improve
the effectiveness of resource management towards maximizing both destination
competitiveness and consumer satisfaction while also demonstrate sustainability
over an extended timeframe. There are three forms of ICT which are vital for
setting up Smart Tourism Destinations, namely Cloud Computing, Internet of
Things (IoT) and End-User Internet Service System (Zhang et al. 2012 as cited
in Wang et al. 2013). The Cloud Computing services are designed to provide
convenient way to access solid web platform and data storage through certain
network. The use of Cloud Computing is going to reduce fixed costs and shift
them into variable costs based on the necessities (Etro 2009). It also
stimulates information sharing that is fundamental to undertake Smart Tourism
Destinations project. For instance, a sophisticated tour guide system could
serve massive number of tourists without being actually Smart Tourism
Destinations installed on any personal device (Zhang et al. 2012 as cited in
Wang et al. 2013). Second, the IoT could support smart destinations in terms of
providing information and analysis as well as automation and control (Chui et
al. 2010). For instance, chips embedded to entrance ticket allow tourism
service providers to track tourists’ locations and their consumption behavior
so that location-based advertising could be executed (Lin 2011). As for
automation and control, the system could control visitor number within specific
tourism sites by using variety of sensors in regard with each sites’ carrying
capacity (Mingjun et al. 2012). The third component of a smart destination is
the End-User Internet Service System, which refers to number of applications at
various levels supported by combination of Cloud Computing and IoT. For
instance, Barcelona had established Project LIVE that concerning on the
creation of innovative hub for electrical vehicles. LIVE’s charging points map
could be accessed remotely via Apple’s iPhone and Google’s Android to check all
the availability status of vehicles’ charging points (Jung 2011). However, proper
connectivity is the base enabler to run these three core forms of ICT in Smart
Tourism Destinations. In this regard, it is important for the government
supported by various stakeholders to maintain adequate network coverage within
the city to avoid gap between commercially dense area and rural area.