The of which was randomly selected as

The target population of the study consisted of EFL
students at Shokouh Institute in Lahijan who have been studying
English there for at least two years. The original population who had the
chance to take part in the study consisted of 110 EFL learners at the
intermediate levels, 15-18 year-old (Age Mean= 16.30) students. To achieve the
required number of the participants for undertaking the current study, the
students sat on a language proficiency test called Oxford Placement Test OPT,
and based on their performance on the test, two more homogeneous intact classes
were selected to take part in the current study, one of which was randomly
selected as the first experimental group which received speaking instruction
through CLT method and the other group entitled as the second experimental
group which instructed via ALM method. Thus, both groups were at the
intermediate proficiency level. To conduct the study, the total sample which
participated in the experimental study was 60 participants who were in two
intact classes of thirty students, the first Experimental group (EX1, Female:
30 and the second experimental group (EX2, Female: 30). All of them were of
Iranian nationality whose religion was Islam and they were learning English as
a foreign language.  

 

 

3.5. Materials

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In fact, there are four types of research material
in the present study, each materials have their own specific characteristics,
includes in the following parts:

3.5.1. Material for the Proficiency Test

To be
sure of the homogeneity in two groups, proficiency test was administrated to
establish of participants’ homogeneity. Oxford Placement Test (OPT) was
administered to make sure the participants were homogenous in terms of
their language proficiency. This enables teachers to have a great understanding
of what level their students are at. The test contains 50 multiple choice
questions which assess student’s knowledge of key grammar and
vocabulary, a reading text with 10 graded comprehension questions, and a
writing task for assessing student’s ability to produce the language.

3.5.2. Material for Pretest and Posttest

A pretest was administrated to assess
participants listening comprehension ability. After the treatment of the study,
a posttest was administrated. The tests were taken from the book ‘Four Corners’
by Jack C. Richard and David Bolkh .The audio used for listening comprehension
test comprised personal stories told by different people in a conversation form
and participants were supposed to listen to the audio tracks
and answer the questions provided for each conversation. Each conversation was
about 5 minutes and the participants were supposed to answer the related
questions.

3.5.3. Material for Treatment of the Study

The material for the treatment of this study
included 8listening passages together with their related audio tracks used for
listening talk. Listening texts were selected from the book ‘Four Corners’
series approved by the “Cambridge University Press Staff.” The volume used in
this study was the second book of the Four Corners series suitable for
intermediate level.

3.6. Procedure

As it
was mentioned before, the first step in this process of conducting the research
was the administration of OPT as the homogenizing tool. It was administered to
62 intermediate EFL learners. After analyzing the results, subjects were
randomly assigned into two groups. Prior to the study, a pre-test was administrated to assess
participants listening comprehension ability. The allotted time to test. The obtained
scores from the two classes were statistically analyzed and compared to figure
out whether there was any significant difference between the experimental
groups in terms of their listening comprehension ability. All selected 62 participants were randomly
divided into two groups with 31 participants for each one.  However, 2 participants left the institute
and the researcher had to continue the research with 60 participants who
divided into two groups each consisted of 30 participants. One group as first
experimental group, received listening via CLT techniques. It took for five
sessions. While the other group as the second experimental group received
listening via ALM. The treatment took for five sessions too.  The participants were taught differently in
two experimental groups.

      To ensure that there was no environmental noise
the participants were allowed to wear headphones so that they could concentrate
on the listening tasks. The time allocated to the tests was 40 minutes.

 

3.7. Method of Analyzing Data

The numerical data were analyzed through SPSS,
using an independent samples T-test between Post test score of the two groups
of the study and paired samples T-test between pretest and post-test score of
each group.